organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower borer Rhynchitidae Mecorhis ungarica
leaf gall larva Rhynchitidae Byctiscus betulae
stem borer larva Rhynchitidae Neocoenorrhinus germanicus
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Neopealius rubi
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia tabaci
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia afer
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Asterobemisia carpini
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Asterobemisia carpini
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleurotrachelus rhamnicola
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae
stem vagrant Ortheziidae Orthezia urticae
stem scale Coccidae Parthenolecanium corni
stem scale Coccidae Eulecanium tiliae
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Sphaerulina westendorpii
leaf vagrant Triozidae Phylloplecta trisignata
stem borer Anthomyiidae Pegomya rubivora
leaf gall Tenuipalpidae Cenopalpus spinosus
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
fruit gall Eriophyidae Acalitus essigi
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia rubicola
flower gall Curculionidae Anthonomus rubi
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera aphanis
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora rubi
leaf leaf spot Venturiales Coleroa chaetomium
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis idaei
leaf gall Aphididae Aulacorthum cylactis
leaf gall Aphididae Amphorophora idaei
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Buhriella rubicola
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura plicatrix
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria silvicola
leaf gall Eriophyidae Epitrimerus gibbosus
leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes rubicolens
leaf gall Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes gracilis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza idaeiana
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza sulfuriceps
leaf miner doubtful Coleophoridae Coleophora ahenella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora plumbella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora potentillae
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora violacea
leaf miner doubtful Douglasiidae Tinagma perdicella
leaf miner Incurvariidae Incurvaria oehlmanniella
leaf miner Incurvariidae Incurvaria praelatella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella auromarginella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella poterii
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella pretiosa
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella splendidissimella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia erythrogenella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia rubivora
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Metallus albipes
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Metallus pumilus
leaf miner Tischeriidae Coptotriche heinemanni
leaf miner Tischeriidae Coptotriche longiciliatella
leaf miner Tischeriidae Coptotriche marginea
leaf miner Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf oviposition scar Argidae Arge gracilicornis
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Kuehneola uredinis
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Phragmidium acuminatum
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Phragmidium arcticum
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Phragmidium bulbosum
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Phragmidium rubi-idaei
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Phragmidium violaceum
leaf pustule Pucciniales Arthuriomyces peckianus
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Pucciniastrum arcticum
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Mainsia urediniformis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Phragmidium candicantium
leaf vagrant spring generation Aphididae Sitobion fragariae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum funestum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Amphorophora rubi
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Anthocoptes rubicolens
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Calepitrimerus chamaemori
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus rubi
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculus schlechtendali
stem borer Cecidomyiidae Resseliella theobaldi
stem gall Buprestidae Agrilus cuprescens
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Lasioptera rubi
stem gall doubtful Cynipidae Aulacidea rubi
stem gall Cynipidae Diastrophus rubi
stem gall Rhizobiales Agrobacterium tumefaciens
stem gall Sesiidae Pennisetia hylaeiformis
root gall summer generation rarely Aphididae Mimeuria ulmiphila
predator Cecidomyiidae Lestodiplosis plicatricis
inquiline Cecidomyiidae Clinodiplosis socialis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum circumflexum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum solani
flower vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum rubiarctici
stem scale Diaspididae Aulacaspis rosae
stem vagrant summer generation Aphididae Macrosiphum rosae
systemic vagrant Aphididae Aphis ruborum


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.