Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Rubus caesius

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
stem scale Diaspididae Pseudaulacaspis pentagona
leaf vagrant Gelechiidae Argolamprotes micella
leaf leaf spot Neoramularia rubi
root vagrant Curculionidae Sciaphobus rubi
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Eusomus ovulum
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Pseudomyllocerus sinuatus
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Noctua comes
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Paradiarsia punicea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Graphiphora augur
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Polia nebulosa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Orthosia gracilis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mormo maura
leaf vagrant Erebidae Phragmatobia fuliginosa
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Macrothylacia rubi
leaf vagrant Saturniidae Saturnia pavonia
leaf vagrant Erebidae Orgyia antiqua
leaf vagrant Drepanidae Habrosyne pyritoides
leaf vagrant Drepanidae Thyatira batis
leaf vagrant Geometridae Mesoleuca albicillata
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Brenthis daphne
leaf vagrant doubtful Geometridae Scopula nigropunctata
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Pyrgus malvae
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Pyrgus malvoides
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Siobla ruficornis
stem borer Buprestidae Coraebus rubi
stem borer Buprestidae Agrilus viridicaerulans
stem gall Buprestidae Agrilus cuprescens
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Macropsis brabantica
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Ribautiana debilis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Macropsis fuscula
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Ribautiana tenerrima
stem scale Pseudococcidae Coccura comari
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Batophila rubi
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Batophila aerata
flower borer Nitidulidae Meligethes denticulatus
leaf oviposition scar Argidae Arge gracilicornis
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Macrophya rufipes
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Macrophya diversipes
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Macrophya montana
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Empria aridicola
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Empria tridens
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Taxonus agrorum
leaf hidden Tortricidae Ancylis comptana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Notocelia uddmanniana
stem gall Dothideales Paraconiothyrium fuckelii
leaf hidden Tortricidae Pandemis dumetana
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Abacarus pliszki
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Anthocoptes rubi
leaf vagrant Diptilomiopidae Diptacus caesius
stem borer Prodoxidae Lampronia luzella
stem borer Prodoxidae Lampronia flavimitrella
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Neopealius rubi
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Asterobemisia carpini
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum funestum
stem vagrant Ortheziidae Orthezia urticae
stem scale Coccidae Parthenolecanium corni
stem scale Diaspididae Aulacaspis rosae
leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes rubicolens
leaf vagrant Aphididae Amphorophora rubi
leaf vagrant spring generation Aphididae Sitobion fragariae
systemic vagrant Aphididae Aphis ruborum
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia rubicola
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera aphanis
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora rubi
leaf leaf spot Venturiales Coleroa chaetomium
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura plicatrix
leaf gall Eriophyidae Epitrimerus gibbosus
leaf gall Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes gracilis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza idaeiana
leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia erythrogenella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia rubivora
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella pretiosa
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella splendidissimella
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Metallus pumilus
leaf miner Tischeriidae Coptotriche heinemanni
leaf miner Tischeriidae Coptotriche marginea
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Kuehneola uredinis
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Phragmidium bulbosum
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Phragmidium violaceum
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Calepitrimerus chamaemori
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus rubi
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Lasioptera rubi
stem gall Cynipidae Diastrophus rubi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


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