Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Rubus fruticosus


organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEmpria tridens
leafoviposition scarArgidaeArge gracilicornis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTaxonus agrorum
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeMacrophya blanda
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeMacrophya diversipes
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeMacrophya montana
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeCladius brullei
stemborerCephidaeHartigia nigra
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeAllantus calceatus
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeMonophadnoides ruficruris
leafhiddenChimabachidaeDiurnea lipsiella
stemleaf spotSeptocyta ruborum
leafhiddenChimabachidaeDasystoma salicella
leafhiddenTortricidaeLepteucosma huebneriana
leafhiddenTortricidaeNotocelia uddmanniana
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis spectrana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips podana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips xylosteana
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora pallidiventris
leafhiddenTortricidaeAdoxophyes orana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris rufana
leafvagrantDiptilomiopidaeTrimeroptes rubi
leafvagrantEriophyidaeEriophyes rubifolii
leafvagrantDiptilomiopidaeDiptacus caesius
stemborerProdoxidaeLampronia luzella
stemborerlarvaRhynchitidaeNeocoenorrhinus germanicus
leafscaleAleyrodidaeNeopealius rubi
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleyrodes lonicerae
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAsterobemisia carpini
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleurotrachelus rhamnicola
stemscaleDiaspididaeAulacaspis rosae
stemgallBuprestidaeAgrilus cuprescens
leafleaf spotCapnodialesSphaerulina westendorpii
leafvagrantTriozidaePhylloplecta trisignata
fruitgallEriophyidaeAcalitus essigi
flowergallCecidomyiidaeContarinia rubicola
leafdownErysiphalesPodosphaera aphanis
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora rubi
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura plicatrix
leafgallEriophyidaeEpitrimerus gibbosus
leafgallEriophyidaeEriophyes rubicolens
leafgallEriophyidaePhyllocoptes gracilis
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza idaeiana
leafminerIncurvariidaeIncurvaria praelatella
leafminerNepticulidaeEctoedemia erythrogenella
leafminerNepticulidaeEctoedemia rubivora
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella aurella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella auromarginella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella pretiosa
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella splendidissimella
leafminerTenthredinidaeMetallus pumilus
leafminerTischeriidaeCoptotriche heinemanni
leafminerTischeriidaeCoptotriche marginea
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesKuehneola uredinis
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesPhragmidium bulbosum
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesPhragmidium violaceum
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesMainsia urediniformis
leafvagrantAphididaeAmphorophora rubi
leafvagrantAphididaeMacrosiphum funestum
leafvagrantspring generationAphididaeSitobion fragariae
leafvagrantEriophyidaeCalepitrimerus chamaemori
stemgallCecidomyiidaeLasioptera rubi
stemgallCynipidaeDiastrophus rubi
stemgallRhizobialesAgrobacterium tumefaciens
leafvagrantAphididaeAulacorthum circumflexum
leafvagrantAphididaeAulacorthum solani
systemicvagrantAphididaeAphis ruborum


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 26.iv.2020