Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Ulmus x hollandica

dutch elm

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
stem kanker Nectriaceae Nectria cinnabarina
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Nymphalis polychloros
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Satyrium w-album
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Alebra wahlbergi
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Ribautiana ulmi
leaf vagrant Caliscelidae Zonocyba bifasciata
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Iassus scutellaris
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Ribautiana cruciata
leaf gall Argidae Aproceros leucopoda
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Phloeospora ulmi
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Kaltenbachiella pallida
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria campestricola
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria ulmi
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix ulmifoliae
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora badiipennella
leaf miner Curculionidae Orchestes betuleti
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter tristrigella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella ulmivora
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Fenusa ulmi
leaf vagrant Aphididae Tinocallis takachihoensis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 30.viii.2022