Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Urtica dioica

common nettle

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePachyprotasis antennata
stemscaleCoccidaeParthenolecanium corni
leafhiddenTortricidaeCelypha lacunana
leafhiddenmainPyralidaePleuroptya ruralis
leafhiddenmainCrambidaeAnania hortulata
leafhiddenCrambidaeSitochroa verticalis
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis spectrana
rootborerlarvaCurculionidaeNedyus quadrimaculatus
leafscaleAleyrodidaeTrialeurodes vaporariorum
stemvagrantOrtheziidaeOrthezia urticae
stemborerAgromyzidaeMelanagromyza aenea
stemborerAgromyzidaePhytomyza flavicornis
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe urticae
leafdownPeronosporalesPseudoperonospora urticae
leafleaf spotCapnodialesMycosphaerella superflua
leafgallAphididaeAphis urticata
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura dioicae
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura urticae
leafgallTriozidaeTrioza urticae
leafminermainAgromyzidaeAgromyza anthracina
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza pseudoreptans
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza reptans
leafminerNoctuidaeHypena proboscidalis
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia biporospora
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia iridis
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia urticae-acutae
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia urticae-acutiformis
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia urticae-flaccae
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia urticae-frigidae
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia urticae-hirtae
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia urticae-inflatae
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia urticae-paniceae
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia urticae-pilosae
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia urticae-ripariae
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia urticae-umbrosae
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia urticae-vaginatae
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia urticae-vesicariae
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia urticata
leafvagrantAphididaeMicrolophium carnosum
leafvagrantChoreutidaeAnthophila fabriciana
leafvagrantDiptilomiopidaeQuadracus urticarius
leafvagrantEriophyidaeEpitrimerus urticae
leafvagrantEriophyidaePhyllocoptes urticophilus
stemborerTephritidaePhilophylla caesio
stemgallApionidaeTaeniapion urticarium
root collargallCurculionidaeParethelcus pollinarius
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis nasturtii
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
leafvagrantAphididaeMacrosiphum euphorbiae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 26.iv.2020