Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Hirschfeldia incana

hoary mustard

synonym: Brassica, Hirschfeldia, adpressa; Erucastrum incanum; Sinapis incana

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
fruitvagrantRhopalidaeBrachycarenus tigrinus
leafvagrantRhopalidaeBrachycarenus tigrinus
fruitvagrantPieridaeEuchloe crameri
leafvagrantPieridaePieris brassicae
fruitvagrantPieridaeEuchloe belemia
leafminerChrysomelidaePhyllotreta nemorum
stemborerCurculionidaeMelanobaris quadraticollis
unknownunknownCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus gracilis
rootvagrantChrysomelidaePhyllotreta nigripes
unknownunknownChrysomelidaePsylliodes circumdata
stemborerChrysomelidaePsylliodes chrysocephala
rootvagrantChrysomelidaePsylliodes cuprea
rootvagrantChrysomelidaePhyllotreta variipennis
leafhiddenTortricidaeCnephasia incertana
leafscaleAleyrodidaeBemisia tabaci
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeMyzus persicae
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
fruitgallCecidomyiidaeAsphondylia stefanii
flowergallCecidomyiidaeContarinia nasturtii
flowergallCecidomyiidaeGephyraulus raphanistri
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe cruciferarum
leafdownErysiphalesLeveillula taurica
leafdowndoubtfulPeronosporalesHyaloperonospora erucastri
leafgallCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus chalibaeus
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza brassicae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza xanthocera
leafminerCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus minutus
leafminerDrosophilidaeScaptomyza flava
leafminerPlutellidaePlutella xylostella
leafpustuleAlbuginales AlbiginaceaeAlbugo candida
stemborerCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus pallidactylus
root collargallPlasmodiophoralesPlasmodiophora brassicae
leafgallAphididaeBrevicoryne brassicae
leafvagrantAphididaeLipaphis erysimi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 10.iv.2022