Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Moricandia violet cabbage, purple mistress

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a mine full depth, (almost) without frass, with an opening through which the larva has entered => 2

1b mine full depth, with clear amounts of frass, no recognisable opening: Ceutorhynchus minutus

1c mine lower- or upper-surface, with frass; no opening => 5

1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a larva mines from a helicoidal case: Apterona gracilis

2b larva does not mine from a case => 3

3a mine < 1 cm; older larvae live free under the lea: Plutella xylostella

3b mine larger; larvae mine facultatively, either life-long, or older larvae among spun leaves => 4

4a mine begins as a broad corridor: Selania leplastriana

4b mine a broad blotch from the start on: Hellula undalis

5a short gallery, that ends or begins on a thick vein; the larva essentially lives as a borer in the veins, petiole, or stem => 6

5b the larva does not mine in (though sometimes upon!) the veins => 7

6a larva a maggot: Phytomyza rufipes

6b larva with chitinised head: Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus

7a pinnately branched gallery, main and side branches on top of the midrib and side veins: Liriomyza strigata

7b blotch, or little, not pinnately, branched gallery; mine not determined by the leaf venation => 8

8a gallery from start to end => 9

8b one or more galleries, ending in a common blotch: Scaptomyza flava

9a pupation within the mine, in a, generally lower-surface, pupal chamber; frass in well-spaced grains: Chromatomyia horticola

9b pupation external; frass in strings: Liriomyza brassicae

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 30.iii.2019