Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Armoracia rusticana


synonym: Armoracia lapathifolia; Cochlearia, Nasturtium, armoracia

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotMycosphaerellaceaeCercospora armoraciae
leafvagrantPentatomidaeEurydema oleracea
fruitvagrantPieridaeAnthocharis cardamines
leafvagrantPieridaePieris brassicae
leafvagrantPieridaePieris rapae
leafvagrantPieridaePieris napi
leafminerChrysomelidaePhyllotreta nemorum
rootvagrantChrysomelidaePhyllotreta undulata
stemborerCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus sulcicollis
stemborerCurculionidaeAulacobaris coerulescens
unknownunknownCurculionidaeAulacobaris janthina
rootvagrantChrysomelidaePhyllotreta atra
rootvagrantChrysomelidaePhyllotreta nigripes
leafvagrantChrysomelidaePhaedon laevigatus
leafvagrantChrysomelidaePhaedon cochleariae
leafvagrantChrysomelidaePhaedon armoraciae
rootvagrantChrysomelidaePhyllotreta diademata
rootvagrantChrysomelidaePhyllotreta consobrina
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeAthalia rosae
leafhiddenCrambidaeEvergestis pallidata
leafleaf spotCapnodialesRamularia armoraciae
leafgallAphrophoridaePhilaenus spumarius
fruitborerlarvaCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus cochleariae
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus ignitus
root collarborerlarvaCurculionidaeLixus albomarginatus
flowervagrantAphididaeSmiela fusca
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
flowergallCecidomyiidaeContarinia nasturtii
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura armoraciae
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe cruciferarum
leafdownPeronosporalesHyaloperonospora cochleariae
leafgallCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus chalibaeus
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza bryoniae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza xanthocera
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza rufipes
leafminerCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus minutus
leafminerDrosophilidaeScaptomyza flava
leafminerPlutellidaePlutella xylostella
leafpustuleAlbuginales AlbiginaceaeAlbugo candida
stemborerChrysomelidaePhyllotreta armoraciae
stemborerCurculionidaeAulacobaris lepidii
stemgallCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus griseus
root collargallCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus assimilis
root collargallPlasmodiophoralesPlasmodiophora brassicae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis nasturtii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 21.viii.2022