Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Cardamine bitter-cress, cuckoo flower

Incl. Dentaria.

(For a dichotomous table for galls on Cardamine by Hans Roskam click here)

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a larva in stem and petioles, sometimes making excursions into the leaf that start from the midrib => 2

1b larva not in stem or petiole => 3

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a the larva induces a gall; larva without feet: Ceutorhynchus pectoralis

2b no gall; larva with thoracic feet: Psylliodes napi

3a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 4

3b mine upper- and/or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 7

4a mine small, < 1 cm; frass in discrete grains; larva, with abdominal and thoracic feet, later lives free: Plutella xylostella

4b mine > 1 cm, a corridor or blotch; frass in lumps or strings; larva without abdominal feet => 6

5a older larvae live among spun leaves: Cnephasia incertana

5b older larvae live at the underside of the leaf: Plutella xylostella

6a frass partly in strings; mine an untidy corridor; larva without thoracic feet: Ceutorhynchus minutus

6b frass in lumps; mine more blotchy; larva with thoracic feet: Phyllotreta nemorum

7a upper- and/or lower-surface blotch, preceded by a narrow corridor (may have been overrun later); frass powdery, in blackish-green clouds: Scaptomyza flava

7b corridor mine; frass black, coarser => 8

8a pinnately branched corridor, main branch overlying the midrib: Liriomyza strigata

8b corridor litle branched, not pinnate, not associated with the midrib => 9

9a pupation within the mine, in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber; frass in discrete grains: Chromatomyia horticola

9b pupation external; frass in long strings: Liriomyza brassicae

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 28.iv.2020