Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Cardamine amara

large bitter-cress

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleyrodes lonicerae
leafvagrantAphididaeAulacorthum solani
leafvagrantAphididaeMyzus ascalonicus
leafvagrantPieridaePieris rapae
leafvagrantPieridaePieris napi
stemgallCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus hirtulus
unknownborerlarvaCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus unguicularis
rootvagrantChrysomelidaePhyllotreta cruciferae
flowerborerNitidulidaeBrassicogethes humerosus
leafvagrantChrysomelidaePhaedon cochleariae
rootvagrantChrysomelidaePhyllotreta ziegleri
rootborerChrysomelidaePhyllotreta ochripes
rootvagrantChrysomelidaePhyllotreta tetrastigma
rootvagrantChrysomelidaePhyllotreta striolata
rootvagrantdoubtfulChrysomelidaePhyllotreta christinae
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTenthredo koehleri
leafhiddenPlutellidaeEidophasia messingiella
fruitborerlarvaCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus cochleariae
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus pervicax
leafpustuleAlbuginales AlbiginaceaeAlbugo candida
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura cardaminis
leafdownPeronosporalesHyaloperonospora nasturtii-aquatici
leafdownPeronosporalesHyaloperonospora parasitica
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura cardaminicola
leafgallTriozidaeTrioza caesaris
leafgallmainTriozidaeTrioza rotundata
leafminerCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus minutus
leafminerDrosophilidaeScaptomyza flava
leafpustuleAlbuginales AlbiginaceaeAlbugo leimonia
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
stemborerChrysomelidaePsylliodes napi
stemgallCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus pectoralis
stemgallCurculionidaeCeutorhynchus rapae
root collargallPlasmodiophoralesPlasmodiophora brassicae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 26.xi.2021