Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Geranium pyrenaicum

hedgerow crane’s-bill

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
predatorMiridaeDicyphus epilobii
predatorMiridaeDicyphus flavoviridis
leafvagrantdoubtfulLycaenidaeCacyreus marshalli
leafvagrantLycaenidaeAricia agestis
fruitborerlarvaCurculionidaeZacladus geranii
root collarborerlarvaCurculionidaeZacladus exiguus
flowergallCurculionidaeLimobius borealis
leafleaf spotCapnodialesRamularia geranii
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe geraniacearum
leafdownErysiphalesPodosphaera fugax
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora conglomerata
leafminerPsychidaeApterona helicoidella
leafminerTenthredinidaeFenella minuta
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia polygoni-amphibii
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces geranii
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces kabatianus
root collargalldoubtfulEriophyidaeAceria schlechtendali
rootgallMeloidogynidaeMeloidogyne hapla
leafvagrantAphididaeAcyrthosiphon malvae malvae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 6.ii.2022