Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi



incl. Halimium.

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a fleck mine; larva mines from a case => 2

1b no fleck mine, larva not in a case => 8

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a hole in the mine neatly circular; while feeding the larve attaches its case with silk to the leaf. Before moving to another place it bites the silk, leaving a fine fringe of bitten stubbles around the rim of the hole =>3

2b hole not neatly circular; the case is not secured, therefore easily drops upon disturbance; no fringe on the rim of the hole => 5

3a species of the Canary Islands: Coleophora confluella

3b species of Central Europe and the Mediterranean Regiond => 4

4a case < 10 mm, clearly consisting of 2-3 leaf fragments that usually differ in colour: Coleophora bilineella

4b case larger, its composition less clear; case generally unicolorous: Coleophora helianthemella

5a hole slit-like or oval; case elliptic, not covered by detritus or sand grains: Crinopteryx familiella

5b hole more roundish; case more or less helicoidal, covered with sand grains => 6

5c case consists of a fragment of the stem of a plant, generally a grass: Epidola stigma

6a case higher than broad: Apterona nylanderi

6b case about as high as broad => 7

6c case definitely lower than wide: Apterona helicinella

7a convolutions very shallow: Apterona gracilis

7b convoltions very distinct: Apterona helicoidella

8a mine uppersurface; larva and pupa broad, with a strikingly large, toothed anal shield: Dicladispa testacea

8b mine full depth; larva slender, anal shield, if present, small and not toothed => 9

9a short corridor, ending in an oval excision: youth mines of Coleophora species => 3

9b mine begins with a large corridor section; final section may end in a short secondary blotch => 10

9b mine with or without a short initial corridor, followed by a large primary blotch or tentiform mine => 12

10a corridor from start to end: Parafomoria halimivora, P. cistivora & P. pseudocistivora

10b mine ends in a secondary blotch => 11

11a on Cistus ladanifer in Portugal or southern Spain: Paraformoria ladaniphila

11b on Cistus albidus, perhaps also incanus, along the Mediterranean coast from Gibraltar to Genua: Parafomoria liguricella

12a tentiform mine => 13

12b ± flat mine => 14

13a pupation within the mine: Perittia piperatella

13b pupation outside the mine: Triberta cistifoliella

14a pupation within the mine: Schistophila laurocistella

14b pupation outside the mine => 15

15a blotch, preceded by a short corridor: Mompha miscella

15b blotch not preceded by a corridor: Urodeta hibernella

Not included in the key: Coleophora cyrniella (insufficiently known).

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 26.i.2020