Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Hibiscus

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantErebidaeAnomis flava
fruitvagrantLygaeidaeNysius graminicola
fruitvagrantLygaeidaeOxycarenus hyalinipennis
leafvagrantLygaeidaeOxycarenus lavaterae
stemscaleCoccidaeSaissetia oleae
fruitvagrantPyrrhocoridaePyrrhocoris apterus
stemscalePseudococcidaePhenacoccus solenopsis
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeBrevipalpus lilium
stemscalePseudococcidaeParacoccus burnerae
stemscalePseudococcidaePuto barberi
stemscalePseudococcidaePhenacoccus madeirensis
leafscaleCoccidaeSaissetia coffeae
scalePseudococcidaePhenacocccus gossypii
stemscalePseudococcidaePlanococcus citri
stemscalePseudococcidaePseudococcus longispinus
scaleDiaspididaeChrysomphalus aonidum
leafvagrantNoctuidaeXanthodes albago
leafvagrantErebidaeAnomis erosa
leafvagrantNoctuidaeSpodoptera exigua
leafvagrantNoctuidaeSpodoptera littoralis
flowervagrantNolidaeEarias insulana
leafhiddenHesperiidaeCarcharodus alceae
leafvagrantCicadellidaeSophonia orientalis
unknownunknownThripidaeEchinothrips americanus
stemborerCurculionidaeErnoporus tilliae
rootvagrantChrysomelidaePodagrica malvae
stemvagrantFlatidaeMetcalfa pruinosa
leafhiddenTortricidaeCelypha lacunana
stemscaleDiaspididaePseudaulacaspis pentagona
fruitvagrantTortricidaeCrocidosema plebejana
leafminerBuprestidaeTrachys troglodytiformis
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleurodicus dispersus
leafscaleAleyrodidaeTrialeurodes vaporariorum
leafscaleAleyrodidaeTrialeurodes ricini
leafscaleAleyrodidaeBemisia tabaci
leafscaleAleyrodidaeParaleyrodes minei
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeNasonovia ribisnigri
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
systemicscaleDiaspididaeParlatoria pergandii
leafscaleCoccidaePulvinaria floccifera
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis spiraecola
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis craccivora
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces orontii
leafdownErysiphalesLeveillula taurica
leafdownErysiphalesPodosphaera xanthii
leafgallAphididaeAphis umbrella
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza bryoniae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza trifolii
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza xanthocera
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesPuccinia malvacearum
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeMyzus persicae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
leafvagrantAphididaeAulacorthum circumflexum
stemscaleCoccidaeParthenolecanium corni
leafvagrantAphididaeAulacorthum solani
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis gossypii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 7.v.2022