Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Alcea rosea

common hollyhock

synonym: Alcea ficifolia, rosea subsp. ficifolia; Althaea ficifolia, rosea

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotMycosphaerellaceaeCercospora nebulosa
leafleaf spotMycosphaerellaceaeCercospora althaeina
fruitvagrantLygaeidaeOxycarenus hyalinipennis
leafpredatorMiridaeDeraeocoris ruber
predatorMiridaeCampylomma verbasci
fruitvagrantPyrrhocoridaePyrrhocoris apterus
fruitvagrantRhopalidaeStictopleurus crassicornis
leafvagrantPentatomidaeCarpocoris purpureipennis
leafvagrantPentatomidaeDolycoris baccarum
leafvagrantMiridaeLygus rugulipennis
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesPuccinia sherardiana
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesPuccinia heterospora
leafscaleAleyrodidaeTrialeurodes vaporariorum
stemscalePseudococcidaePlanococcus citri
leafvagrantErebidaeHyphantria cunea
leafvagrantNoctuidaeNoctua comes
leafvagrantdoubtfulNoctuidaeCaradrina kadenii
fruitborerNolidaeEarias chlorophyllana
fruitborerNolidaeEarias chlorophyllana
leafvagrantGeometridaeLarentia malvata
leafhiddenHesperiidaeCarcharodus alceae
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEupteryx aurata
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEupteryx atropunctata
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEupteryx melissae
flowerhiddenThripidaeFrankliniella occidentalis
rootborerlarvaChrysomelidaePodagrica fuscipes
rootvagrantChrysomelidaePodagrica malvae
stemborerChrysomelidaePodagrica menetriesi
fruitvagrantTortricidaeCrocidosema plebejana
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAceria bendeguzi
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAceria egmirae
fruitborerGelechiidaePexicopia malvella
flowerborerGelechiidaePlatyedra subcinerea
stemborerlarvaChrysomelidaePodagrica fuscicornis
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeLixus pulverulentus
root collarborerlarvaApionidaeAspidapion aeneum
stemborerlarvaApionidaeAspidapion radiolus
fruitborerlarvaApionidaeAspidapion validum
stemborerlarvaApionidaeAlocentron curvirostre
leafdowndoubtfulErysiphalesGolovinomyces magnicellulatus
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia horticola
fruitgallApionidaeMalvapion malvae
fruitgallApionidaeRhopalapion longirostre
leafdownErysiphalesLeveillula contractirostris
leafdownErysiphalesNeoërysiphe galeopsidis
leafgallAphididaeAphis umbrella
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza xanthocera
leafminerBuprestidaeTrachys troglodytiformis
leafvagrantAphididaeAcyrthosiphon malvae malvae
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesPuccinia malvacearum
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis althaeae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 10.ix.2022