Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Lythrum

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips albopilosus
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips brevicornis
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips fuscipennis
flower predator Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips reuteri
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips major
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips intermedius
flower hidden Thripidae Chirothrips manicatus
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips atratus
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips physapus
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips tabaci
stem borer Curculionidae Lixus davidiani
root film Plectosphaerellaceae Verticillium dahliae
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta lythri
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria lythrina
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Leptotes pirithous
leaf vagrant Berytidae Metacanthus meridionalis
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Rhopalus maculatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris ticinensis
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris lineolatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris vandalicus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus reichi
leaf vagrant doubtful Sphingidae Proserpinus proserpina
leaf pustule Pucciniales Puccinia minutissima
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia suasa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Melanchra persicariae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta rumicis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Simyra albovenosa
leaf miner doubtful Gelechiidae Monochroa conspersella
leaf vagrant Erebidae Orgyia antiqua
leaf vagrant Erebidae Dysgonia algira
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Macrothylacia rubi
leaf vagrant Saturniidae Saturnia pavoniella
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Deilephila elpenor
flower vagrant Geometridae Chloroclystis v-ata
flower vagrant Geometridae Gymnoscelis rufifasciata
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Celastrina argiolus
unknown unknown Nanophyidae Dieckmanniellus chevrieri
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Lythraria salicariae
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Altica ampelophaga
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Altica lythri
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Altica palustris
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Aphthona lutescens
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus callidus
leaf vagrant doubtful Tenthredinidae Ametastegia equiseti
Chlamydomonadales “Chlorochytrium rubrum”
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Ametastegia glabrata
leaf hidden Tortricidae Syndemis musculana
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
flower hidden Tortricidae Acleris lorquiniana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Aphelia viburniana
leaf gall Aphrophoridae Philaenus spumarius
stem gall Nanomimus hemisphaericus
stem gall Nanomimus annulatus
stem gall Nanomimus circumscriptus
leaf vagrant Gelechiidae Aristotelia subdecurtella
leaf vagrant larva Curculionidae Pelenomus olssoni
leaf vagrant larva Curculionidae Pelenomus commari
fruit borer Nanophyidae Nanophyes globulus
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Galerucella calmariensis
flower borer Nanophyidae Nanophyes brevis
root collar gall Nanophyidae Nanophyes rubricus
flower borer Nanophyidae Nanophyes marmoratus
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
stem gall Nanophyidae Nanophyes globiformis
fruit gall Nanophyidae Microon sahlbergi
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Bayeriola salicariae
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe lythri
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Zasmidium lythri
leaf leaf spot Doassansiales Heterodoassansia punctiformis
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria jovanovici
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Galerucella pusilla
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora violacea
leaf miner Gracillariidae Calybites phasianipennella
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona paludella
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia lythri
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus lythri
stem gall Nanophyidae Dieckmanniellus gracilis
stem gall Nanophyidae Dieckmanniellus helveticus
stem gall Nanophyidae Dieckmanniellus nitidulus
root collar gall Curculionidae Hylobius transversovittatus
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus lythri


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 12.xi.2023