purple loosestrife

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Galerucella calmariensis
flower borer Nanophyidae Nanophyes brevis
root collar gall Nanophyidae Nanophyes rubicus
flower borer Nanophyidae Nanophyes marmoratus
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
stem gall Nanophyidae Nanophyes globiformis
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Bayeriola salicariae
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe lythri
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Zasmidium lythri
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria jovanovici
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Galerucella pusilla
leaf miner Gracillariidae Calybites phasianipennella
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona paludella
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia lythri
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus lythri
stem gall Nanophyidae Dieckmanniellus helveticus
stem gall Nanophyidae Dieckmanniellus nitidulus
stem gall Nanophyidae Nanonimus annulatus
stem gall Nanophyidae Nanonimus circumscriptus
root collar gall Curculionidae Hylobius transversovittatus
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus lythri


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 24.iii.2019