Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Circaea

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta circaeae
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta circaeae
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta lutetiana
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia caduca
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Euplexia lucipara
leaf predator rarely Miridae Dicyphus stachydis
predator Miridae Dicyphus epilobii
leaf vagrant Miridae Dicyphus escalerae
leaf vagrant Berytidae Metatropis rufescens
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Melanchra persicariae
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Deilephila elpenor
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ecliptopera silaceata
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Altica ampelophaga
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Altica lythri
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Altica oleracea
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pachyprotasis antennata
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Rhogogaster scalaris
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo colon
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Rhogogaster chlorosoma
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe circaeae
leaf miner Momphidae Mompha langiella
leaf miner Momphidae Mompha terminella
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia circaeae-caricis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Pucciniastrum circaeae
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia circaeae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis nasturtii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 6.xi.2022