Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Oenothera biennis

common evening-primrose

synonym: Onagra biennis; Oenothera pycnocarpa

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella occidentalis
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips tabaci
root vagrant Tenebrionidae Opatrum sabulosum
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria oenotherae
root vagrant Cydnidae Microporus nigrita
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Kleidocerys resedae
root vagrant Curculionidae Attactagenus plumbeus
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Deilephila elpenor
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia subfuscata
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Proserpinus proserpina
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Altica oleracea
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Altica lythri
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips hawaiiensis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis frangulae
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe howeana
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora arthurii
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis holoenotherae
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium fulgens
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium mercurialis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis oenotherae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 9.x.2023