Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Citrus aurantium

bitter orange

synonym: Citrus bigaradia, myrtifolia

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf scale Coccidae Ceroplastes floridensis
stem scale Coccidae Ceroplastes rusci
leaf scale Coccidae Saissetia coffeae
stem scale Margarodidae Icerya seychellarum
flower hidden Thripidae Neohydatothrips gracilicornis
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips angusticeps
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips major
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips meridionalis
unknown unknown Diaspididae Aonidiella citrina
scale Diaspididae Chrysomphalus pinnulifer
stem scale Diaspididae Comstockaspis perniciosa
leaf scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes pinnaeformis
leaf scale Diaspididae Lopholeucaspis japonica
leaf Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora penzigii
leaf vagrant Ricaniidae Ricania speculum
systemic scale Diaspididae Parlatoria oleae
scale Diaspididae Pinnaspis strachani
stem scale Diaspididae Aonidiella aurantii
stem scale Margarodidae Icerya purchasi
stem scale Pseudococcidae Planococcus citri
leaf scale Coccidae Protopulvinaria pyriformis
stem scale Coccidae Saissetia oleae
scale Diaspididae Chrysomphalus aonidum
scale Diaspididae Chrysomphalus dictyospermi
flower borer Yponomeutidae Prays citri
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia afer
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Paraleyrodes minei
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Paraleyrodes minei
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleurothrixus floccosus
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Dialeurodes citri
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleuroclava aucubae
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleurocanthus spiniferus
leaf scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes beckii
leaf scale Coccidae Coccus hesperidum
systemic scale Unknown code! Diaspididae Lepidosaphes gloverii
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes ulmi
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes conchiformis
leaf scale Diaspididae Parlatoria ziziphi
systemic scale Diaspididae Parlatoria pergandii
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis aurantii
leaf vagrant Coccidae Pulvinaria floccifera
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


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