Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Citrus sinensis

sweet orange

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
predatorEulophidaePnigalio soemius
predatorEulophidaeAprostocetus toddaliae
leafvagrantMiridaePhytocoris pinihalepensis
flowerborerYponomeutidaePrays citri
leafscaleAleyrodidaeSiphoninus phillyreae
leafscaleAleyrodidaeDialeurodes kirkaldyi
stemscaleMargarodidaeIcerya purchasi
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeBrevipalpus californicus
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeBrevipalpus obovatus
vagrantTenuipalpidaeBrevipalpus yothersi
leafvagrantErebidaeHyphantria cunea
stemscaleDiaspididaeAonidiella aurantii
scaleCoccidaeEucalymnatus tessellatus
scaleDiaspididaeChrysomphalus dictyospermi
stemscaleCoccidaeCeroplastes rusci
stemscaleCoccidaeCeroplastes sinensis
leafvagrantdoubtfulCicadellidaeHauptidia maroccana
leafvagrantCicadellidaePenthimiola bella
leafvagrantCicadellidaeSophonia orientalis
leafhiddenThripidaeThrips angusticeps
unknownunknownThripidaeThrips italicus
leafvagrantThripidaeThrips major
leafscaleAleyrodidaeSinghiella citrifolii
leafvagrantThripidaeScirtothrips inermis
flowerhiddenThripidaeFrankliniella intonsa
leafgallTriozidaeTrioza erytreae
systemicvagrantTenuipalpidaeBrevipalpus phoenicis
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeBrevipalpus lewisi
leafscaleAleyrodidaeParaleyrodes minei
leafscaleAleyrodidaeParaleyrodes citricolus
leafscaleAleyrodidaeParaleyrodes bondari
leafscaleAleyrodidaeParabemisia myricae
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAcaudaleyrodes rachipora
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleurothrixus floccosus
leafscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes beckii
leafscaleCoccidaeCoccus hesperidum
systemicscaleUnknown code!DiaspididaeLepidosaphes gloverii
leafscaleDiaspididaeParlatoria ziziphi
systemicscaleDiaspididaeParlatoria pergandii
fruitborerTephritidaeCeratitis capitata
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
leafvagrantCoccidaePulvinaria floccifera
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis craccivora
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis gossypii
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis aurantii
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis spiraecola


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


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