Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Citrus

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantPyralidaeCryptoblabes gnidiella
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia myrmidon
stemborerBuprestidaeChrysobothris dorsata
rootvagrantCurculionidaeDiaprepes abbreviatus
leafvagrantdoubtfulCicadellidaeHauptidia maroccana
leafvagrantCicadellidaeSophonia orientalis
leafvagrantRicaniidaeRicania speculum
leafvagrantCicadellidaePenthimiola bella
leafvagrantCicadellidaeCirculifer haematoceps
leafvagrantrarelyTetranychidaeAplonobia histricina
stemborerCurculionidaeHypothenemus eruditus
leafvagrantTetranychidaePanonychus citri
leafscaleAleyrodidaeBemisia tabaci
leafhiddenThripidaeThrips angusticeps
unknownunknownThripidaeThrips italicus
leafvagrantThripidaeThrips major
leafscaleAleyrodidaeSinghiella citrifolii
leafgallTriozidaeTrioza erytreae
leafvagrantThripidaeScirtothrips inermis
flowerhiddenThripidaeFrankliniella intonsa
flowerhiddenThripidaePezothrips kellyanus
leafvagrantTetranychidaeEutetranychus orientalis
stemvagrantFlatidaeMetcalfa pruinosa
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips rosana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips xylosteana
systemicvagrantTenuipalpidaeBrevipalpus phoenicis
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeBrevipalpus lewisi
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeBrevipalpus californicus
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeBrevipalpus obovatus
leafscaleAleyrodidaeParaleyrodes citricolus
leafscaleAleyrodidaeParaleyrodes bondari
leafscaleAleyrodidaeParaleyrodes minei
leafscaleAleyrodidaeParabemisia myricae
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAcaudaleyrodes rachipora
stemscaleCoccidaeSaissetia oleae
leafscaleAleyrodidaeBemisia afer
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleurothrixus floccosus
leafscaleAleyrodidaeDialeurodes citri
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleuroclava aucubae
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleurocanthus spiniferus
leafscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes beckii
leafscaleCoccidaeCoccus hesperidum
systemicscaleUnknown code!DiaspididaeLepidosaphes gloverii
stemscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes ulmi
stemscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes conchiformis
systemicscaleDiaspididaeParlatoria oleae
leafscaleDiaspididaeParlatoria ziziphi
systemicscaleDiaspididaeParlatoria pergandii
fruitborerTephritidaeCeratitis capitata
leafvagrantCoccidaePulvinaria floccifera
leafvagrantAphididaeMacrosiphum euphorbiae
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeCenopalpus pulcher
leafvagrantAphididaeBrachyunguis harmalae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis frangulae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis citricidus
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis craccivora
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaeRectinasus buxtoni
systemicgallEriophyidaeAceria sheldoni
flowergallCecidomyiidaeContarinia citri
leafgallEriophyidaePhyllocoptruta oleivora
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllocnistis citrella
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAculops pelekassi
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis spiraecola
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis aurantii
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis gossypii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 13.iv.2021