Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Ruta

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower hidden Aeolothripidae Melanthrips pallidior
flower predator Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips reuteri
leaf miner doubtful Coleophoridae Coleophora conyzae
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta rhea
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria rhea
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Brachyplax tenuis
scale Diaspididae Chrysomphalus aonidum
scale Diaspididae Getulaspis bupleuri
leaf vagrant Geometridae Menophra japygiaria
unknown unknown Apionidae Metapion candidum
flower vagrant Geometridae Phaiogramma etruscaria
leaf vagrant Papilionidae Papilio hospiton
leaf vagrant Papilionidae Papilio machaon
unknown unknown Apionidae Metapion oculare
stem scale Eriococcidae Rhizococcus thymelaeae
leaf hidden Depressariidae Agonopterix perezi
leaf hidden Depressariidae Agonopterix rutana
leaf hidden Elachistidae Exaeretia lutosella
leaf vagrant Psyllidae Agonoscena succincta
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Aphis nasturtii
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia rutae
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula rutae
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Prays peregrina


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 27.ix.2023