Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Aesculus hippocastanum

common horse-chestnut

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantGeometridaeErannis defoliaria
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips crataegana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips podana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips xylosteana
leafvagrantdoubtfulGeometridaePachycnemia hippocastanaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeEnnomos quercinaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeEnnomos quercaria
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEdwardsiana lethierryi
stemborerXiphydryiidaeXiphydria longicollis
stemborerCurculionidaeXyleborinus saxesenii
stemborerCurculionidaeXyleborus dispar
stemborerCurculionidaeScolytus intricatus
leafvagrantTetranychidaeEotetranychus pruni
leafvagrantTetranychidaePanonychus ulmi
stemvagrantFlatidaeMetcalfa pruinosa
leaf budhiddenThripidaeTaeniothrips inconsequens
stemscaleEriococcidaeAcanthococcus aceris
stemscaleEriococcidaeAcanthococcus roboris
stemscaleDiaspididaeDiaspidiotus ostreaeformis
leafhiddenTortricidaeCnephasia incertana
leafmineryounger larvaTortricidaeCnephasia asseclana
leafhiddenolder larvaTortricidaeCnephasia asseclana
stemborerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia glaucinella
leafscaleAleyrodidaePealius quercus
leafscaleCoccidaePulvinaria hydrangeae
stemscalePseudococcidaePhenacoccus aceris
stemscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes ulmi
stemscaleDiaspididaeEpidiaspis leperii
stemscaleCoccidaePulvinaria regalis
flowergallrarelyAphididaePeriphyllus testudinaceus
leafdownrarelyErysiphalesErysiphe alphitoides
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe flexuosa
leafdownrarelyErysiphalesSawadaea bicornis
leafleaf spotBotryosphaerialesPhyllosticta paviae
leafgallEriophyidaeAculus hippocastani
leafminerBucculatricidaeBucculatrix thoracella
leafminermainGracillariidaeCameraria ohridella
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
leafvagrantEriophyidaeShevtchenkella carinata
stemgallPseudomonadalesPseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi
stemgallSantalaceaeViscum album
leafvagrantrarelyAphididaePeriphyllus testudinaceus
stemscaleCoccidaeEulecanium tiliae
stemscaleCoccidaeParthenolecanium corni
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis nasturtii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 11.v.2021