organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
stem scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
stem borer Yponomeutidae Argyresthia glaucinella
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Pealius quercus
stem scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus aceris
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes ulmi
stem scale Diaspididae Epidiaspis leperii
stem borer Sesiidae Synanthedon vespiformis
stem scale Coccidae Pulvinaria regalis
leaf scale Coccidae Pulvinaria hydrangeae
flower gall rarely Aphididae Periphyllus testudinaceus
leaf down rarely Erysiphales Sawadaea bicornis
leaf down rarely Erysiphales Erysiphe alphitoides
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe flexuosa
leaf leaf spot Botryosphaeriales Phyllosticta paviae
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aculus hippocastani
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix thoracella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Cameraria ohridella
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Shevtchenkella carinata
stem gall Pseudomonadales Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi
stem gall Rhizobiales Agrobacterium tumefaciens
stem gall Santalaceae Viscum album
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis nasturtii
leaf vagrant rarely Aphididae Periphyllus testudinaceus
stem scale Coccidae Eulecanium tiliae
stem scale Coccidae Parthenolecanium corni


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 18.xi.2019