Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Laurus nobilis


organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
stemborerCurculionidaeLiparthrum nigrescens
stemborerCurculionidaeLiparthrum laurivorus
stemborerCurculionidaeLiparthrum nigrescens
leafvagrantTingidaeStephanitis lauri
leafvagrantIssidaeLatilica maculipes
leafvagrantCicadellidaeSynophropsis lauri
stemborerCurculionidaeLiparthrum colchicum
stemborerCurculionidaeHypothenemus eruditus
leafscaleAleyrodidaeBemisia tabaci
leafscaleAleyrodidaeTrialeurodes vaporariorum
leafvagrantThripidaeScirtothrips inermis
leafscaleEriococcidaeOrontesicoccus lauri
stemscaleDiaspididaeDynaspidiotus britannicus
leafhiddenTortricidaeDitula angustiorana
leafvagrantTortricidaeCacoecimorpha pronubana
leafvagrantEriophyidaeEpitrimerus carmonae
leafvagrantDiptilomiopidaeDiptacus camarai
leafscaleAleyrodidaeBemisia afer
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleurocanthus spiniferus
leafscaleAleyrodidaeTrialeurodes lauri
leafscaleDiaspididaeAspidiotus nerii
stemscaleCoccidaeSaissetia oleae
leafscaleCoccidaeProtopulvinaria pyriformis
leafscaleDiaspididaeAonidia lauri
leafscaleCoccidaePulvinaria floccifera
leafscaleCoccidaeCoccus hesperidum
leafscaleDiaspididaeUnaspis euonymi
systemicscaleDiaspididaeParlatoria oleae
stemscaleCoccidaePulvinaria regalis
flowergallEriophyidaeCecidophyopsis malpighianus
leaf budgallEriophyidaeEriophyes lauricolus
leaf budvagrantEriophyidaeCalepitrimerus cerosus
leafdownErysiphalesPseudoidium lauracearum
leafgallEriophyidaeCecidophyes lauri
leafgallTriozidaeTrioza alacris
leafminerGracillariidaeCaloptilia nobilella
leafvagrantEriophyidaeCalepitrimerus russoi
stempustuleExobasidialesLaurobasidium lauri


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 15.iv.2021