Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Persea americana


synonym: Persea gratissima

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
stem scale Coccidae Ceroplastes sinensis
stem scale Coccidae Parthenolecanium persicae
leaf scale Coccidae Saissetia coffeae
stem scale Coccidae Saissetia oleae
scale Diaspididae Hemiberlesia cyanophylli
leaf scale Diaspididae Aspidiotus nerii
scale Diaspididae Chrysomphalus dictyospermi
leaf scale Diaspididae Ischnaspis longirostris
stem scale Pseudococcidae Planococcus citri
stem scale Pseudococcidae Planococcus ficus
stem scale Pseudococcidae Pseudococcus longispinus
leaf hidden Tortricidae Epiphyas postvittana
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Sophonia orientalis
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Eutetranychus orientalis
leaf vagrant Thripidae Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis
flower hidden Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips gowdeyi
leaf miner Gracillariidae Caloptilia perseae
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Paraleyrodes citricolus
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Paraleyrodes bondari
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Parabemisia myricae
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes vaporariorum
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Paraleyrodes minei
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia tabaci
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleuroplatus perseaphagus
leaf scale Coccidae Protopulvinaria pyriformis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola
leaf miner Gracillariidae Caloptilia staintoni


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 24.x.2021