Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Allium cepa


organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Spodoptera frugiperda
leaf hidden Thripidae Anaphothrips sudanensis
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella occidentalis
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips tabaci
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips intermedius
leaf leaf spot Pleosporaceae Alternaria alli
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella tenuicornis
systemic pustule Sclerotiniaceae Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
flower vagrant Pyralidae Hypotia corticalis
leaf vagrant Miridae Campylomma diversicornis
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris lineolatus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Carpocoris mediterraneus
scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus emansor
stem borer Noctuidae Hydraecia micacea
flower vagrant Noctuidae Xylena exsoleta
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Autographa gamma
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Anarta trifolii
root borer Cossidae Dyspessa ulula
flower vagrant Tortricidae Lobesia bicinctana
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Bryobia graminum
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Lilioceris merdigera
root borer Brachyceridae Brachycerus plicatus
leaf miner Curculionidae Oprohinus consputus
leaf miner Curculionidae Oprohinus suturalis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
leaf vagrant Triozidae Bactericera tremblayi
leaf vagrant Triozidae Bactericera kratochvili
leaf vagrant Aphididae Neotoxoptera oliveri
leaf vagrant Aphididae Neotoxoptera formosana
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Rhopalosiphum padi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula allii
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora destructor
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Cladosporium allii-cepae
leaf leaf spot Glomerellales Colletotrichum circinans
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza cepae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza huidobrensis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza nietzkei
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza gymnostoma
leaf miner Drosophilidae Scaptomyza graminum
leaf miner Drosophilidae Scaptomyza pallida
leaf miner Glyphipterigidae Acrolepiopsis assectella
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsora allii-fragilis
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsora allii-populina
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia permixta
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia sessilis
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia allii
leaf pustule Urocystidales Urocystis cepulae
leaf pustule Ustilaginales Ustilago ceparum
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aceria tulipae
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne hapla
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne naasi
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ascalonicus


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


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