Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Gladiolus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Sclerotiniaceae Stromatinia gladioli
stem down Nectriaceae Fusarium oxysporum
root film Ceratobasidiaceae Rhizoctonia solani
root down Typhulaceae Sclerotium tuliparum
systemic film Peronosporaceae Phytophthora cactorum
stem down Botrytis gladioli
stem down Nectriaceae Fusarium avenaceum
stem leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta gladioli
leaf down Peronosporaceae Phytophthora porri
systemic down Sclerotiniaceae Botrytis cinerea
leaf down Sclerotiniaceae Botrytis gladiolorum
leaf leaf spot Pleosporaceae Curvularia trifolii
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria gladioli
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Spilostethus saxatilis
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Barynotus moerens
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Dolycoris baccarum
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Aphthona semicyanea
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
leaf hidden main Thripidae Thrips simplex
root borer Syrphidae Merodon bombiformis
root borer doubtful Syrphidae Merodon loewi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Smynthurodes betae
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Cladosporium iridis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces transversalis
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia gladioli
leaf stripe Urocystidales Urocystis gladiolicola
stem gall Rhizobiales Agrobacterium tumefaciens
root collar gall Actinomycetales Rhodococcus fascians
root borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus destructor
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne hapla
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ascalonicus
root vagrant Aphididae Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon
systemic vagrant Aphididae Aphis newtoni
root vagrant Aphididae Dysaphis tulipae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 20.xii.2022