Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Carex sempervirens

synonym: Carex alpina, tatrorum

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
stem leaf spot Phaeosphaeriaceae Phaeosphaeria exarata
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Erebia aethiops
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Kelisia monoceros
fruit gall Ustilaginales Anthracoidea sempervirentis
flower gall Ustilaginales Moreaua aterrima
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha caricicola
leaf miner Elachistidae Elachista gleichenella
leaf miner Elachistidae Elachista ornithopodella
leaf miner Elachistidae Elachista zonulae
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia cirsii-sempervirentis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia scabiosae-sempervirentis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces caricis-sempervirentis
leaf stripe Ustilaginales Schizonella melanogramma
leaf vagrant Aphididae Caricosipha paniculatae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 10.i.2023