Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Juncus bufonius

toad rush

synonym: Juncus divaricatus Gilb., bulbosus subsp. kochii, supinus, juzepczukii

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Phaeosphaeriaceae Septoriella junci
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Cymus claviculus
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Noctua pronuba
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Xestia c-nigrum
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Macrosteles horvathi
unknown unknown Curculionidae Bagous lothari
root gall Entorrhizales Juncorrhiza aschersoniana
flower borer larva Curculionidae Bagous lutulosus
fruit vagrant Coleophoridae Coleophora lassella
fruit vagrant doubtful Coleophoridae Coleophora glaucicolella
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
flower gall Psyllidae Livia junci
flower gall Ustilaginales Tolyposporium junci
leaf gall Urocystidales Urocystis johansonii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha luctuosa
leaf miner Ephydridae Hydrellia nigricans
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces junci
root gall Plasmodiophorales Ligniera junci
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ascalonicus
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Rhopalosiphum padi
leaf vagrant summer generation rarely Aphididae Utamphorophora humboldti
leaf vagrant Aphididae Schizaphis palustris
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sitobion avenae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 21.ix.2022