Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Juncus bufonius

toad rush

synonym: Juncus divaricatus Gilb., bulbosus subsp. kochii, supinus, juzepczukii

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotPhaeosphaeriaceaeSeptoriella junci
leafvagrantLygaeidaeCymus claviculus
leafvagrantNoctuidaeNoctua pronuba
leafvagrantNoctuidaeXestia c-nigrum
leafvagrantCicadellidaeMacrosteles horvathi
unknownunknownCurculionidaeBagous lothari
rootgallEntorrhizalesJuncorrhiza aschersoniana
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeBagous lutulosus
fruitvagrantColeophoridaeColeophora lassella
fruitvagrantdoubtfulColeophoridaeColeophora glaucicolella
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
flowergallPsyllidaeLivia junci
flowergallUstilaginalesTolyposporium junci
leafgallUrocystidalesUrocystis johansonii
leafminerAgromyzidaeCerodontha luctuosa
leafminerEphydridaeHydrellia nigricans
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces junci
rootgallPlasmodiophoralesLigniera junci
leafvagrantAphididaeMyzus ascalonicus
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeRhopalosiphum padi
leafvagrantsummer generationrarelyAphididaeUtamphorophora humboldti
leafvagrantAphididaeSchizaphis palustris
leafvagrantAphididaeSitobion avenae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 21.ix.2022