Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phragmites australis

common reed

synonym: Phragmites communis, gigantea J. Gay, longivalvis

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
root scale Diaspididae Rhizaspidiotus donacis
leaf scale Diaspididae Duplachionaspis natalensis
stem hidden Pseudococcidae Trionymus thulensis
unknown scale Coccidae Poaspis jahandiezi
stem borer Gelechiidae Brachmia inornatella
leaf vagrant Unknown code! Delphacidae Delphax armeniacus
stem borer Dolichopodidae Thrypticus smaragdinus
leaf leaf spot Phaeosphaeriaceae Phaeosphaeria graminis
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Graminopassalora graminis
leaf leaf spot Microdochiacee Microdochium phragmitis
leaf leaf spot Neoramularia phragmitis
leaf vagrant Coccinellidae Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata
seeds vagrant Lygaeidae Bogdiana myrmica
leaf vagrant Miridae Stenodema trispinosa
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Ischnodemus suturalis
root collar vagrant rarely Lygaeidae Dimorphopterus spinolae
stem vagrant Lygaeidae Dimorphopterus blissoides
leaf vagrant Miridae Teratocoris saundersi
leaf vagrant Miridae Teratocoris antennatus
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Ischnodemus sabuleti
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Holcocranum saturejae
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia graminis
unknown unknown Crambidae Ancylolomia disparalis
stem borer Noctuidae Protarchanara brevilinea
leaf vagrant Erebidae Laelia coenosa
stem borer Chloropidae Chlorops interruptus
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Leucania obsoleta
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Leucania zeae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Leucania palaestinae
leaf vagrant main Noctuidae Mythimna straminea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mythimna impura
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mythimna pallens
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mythimna languida
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Xylena vetusta
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Senta flammea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Xylena vetusta
root borer Noctuidae Rhizedra lutosa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Apamea unanimis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Apamea sordens
leaf vagrant rarely Noctuidae Lateroligia ophiogramma
stem borer Noctuidae Arenostola phragmitidis
stem borer Noctuidae Lenisa geminipuncta
stem borer Noctuidae Archanara dissoluta
stem borer Noctuidae Archanara neurica
stem borer Noctuidae Hydraecia micacea
stem borer Noctuidae Chilodes maritima
stem borer doubtful Chloropidae Meromyza nigriventris
inquiline Chloropidae Oscinella angustipennis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Simyra albovenosa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Plusia festucae
stem borer Chloropidae Platycephala planifrons
inquiline Chloropidae Calamoncosis aprica
stem borer Chloropidae Platycephala umbraculata
stem gall Chloropidae Eurina lurida
inquiline Chloropidae Cryptonevra consimilis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Leucania loreyi
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Leucania loreyi
stem borer Chloropidae Eribolus slesvicensis
leaf vagrant Erebidae Macrochilo cribrumalis
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Euthrix potatoria
stem borer Crambidae Chilo luteellus
leaf miner Noctuidae Globia sparganii
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Ochlodes sylvanus
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Carterocephalus palaemon
stem borer doubtful Crambidae Friedlanderia cicatricella
stem borer Crambidae Schoenobius gigantella
stem borer Crambidae Donacaula mucronella
unknown unknown Crambidae Sclerocona acutella
stem borer Anthomyzidae Anthomyza collini
stem borer Anthomyzidae Amygdalops thomasseti
stem borer Anthomyzidae Anagnota bicolor
stem borer Anthomyzidae Anthomyza gracilis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Ebarrius discolor
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Chloriona chinai
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Cicadella viridis
leaf vagrant doubtful Cicadellidae Paramesus obtusifrons
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Euides speciosa
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Chloriona stenoptera
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Delphax meidionalis
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Delphax ribautianus
leaf vagrant Cixiidae Pentastiridius suezensis
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Delphax inermis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Zyginidia servadeii
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Paralimnus lugens
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Paralimnus rotundiceps
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Paralimnus zachvatkini
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Chloriona dorsata
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Chloriona smaragdula
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Chloriona unicolor
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Delphax crassicornis
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Chloriona clavata
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Chloriona glaucescens
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Chloriona sicula
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Chloriona vasconica
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Delphax pulchellus
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Calamotettix taeniatus
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Euides basilinea
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Paralimnus phragmitis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Euides alpina
leaf vagrant Cixiidae Pentastiridius leporinus
stem borer Cossidae Phragmataecia castaneae
unknown unknown Erirhinidae Icaris sparganii
unknown unknown Erirhinidae Lepidonotaris petax
root scale Chrysomelidae Plateumaris bracata
unknown unknown Chrysomelidae Psylliodes reitteri
root scale Chrysomelidae Donacia clavipes
stem borer Chloropidae Conioscinella sordidella
stem borer Cephidae Calameuta filiformis
stem scale Pseudococcidae Chaetococcus phragmitis
stem borer Crambidae Pseudobissetia terrestrellus
stem borer Crambidae Chilo phragmitella
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Helcystogramma lutatella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Clepsis spectrana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Aphelia paleana
leaf scale Pseudococcidae Dysmicoccus walkeri
stem borer larva Curculionidae Bagous elegans
root collar borer larva Curculionidae Notaris scirpi
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia magnusiana
root vagrant Aphididae Tetraneura africana
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Rhopalosiphum padi
leaf vagrant doubtful Aphididae Melanaphis donacis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Takecallis arundicolens
fruit gall Hypocreales Claviceps purpurea
flower borer Cecidomyiidae Stenodiplosis phragmicola
flower gall Tilletiales Neovossia moliniae
leaf bud gall Chloropidae Lipara lucens
leaf bud gall Chloropidae Lipara pullitarsis
leaf bud gall Chloropidae Lipara rufitarsis
leaf bud gall Chloropidae Lipara similis
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphaceae Blumeria graminis
leaf leaf spot incertae sedis Utrechtiana arundinacea
leaf leaf spot incertae sedis Utrechtiana roumeguerei
leaf gall Peronosporales Sclerophthora macrospora
leaf gall Tarsonemidae Steneotarsonemus phragmitidis
leaf miner doubtful Agromyzidae Agromyza albipennis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza baetica
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza graminicola
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza hendeli
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza phragmitidis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza spenceri
leaf miner doubtful Agromyzidae Cerodontha denticornis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha incisa
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha phragmitidis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha phragmitophila
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha pygmaea
leaf miner Cosmopterigidae Cosmopterix coryphaea
leaf miner Cosmopterigidae Cosmopterix lienigiella
leaf miner doubtful Cosmopterigidae Cosmopterix orichalcea
leaf miner Cosmopterigidae Cosmopterix scribaiella
leaf miner Crambidae Donacaula forficella
leaf miner doubtful Dolichopodidae Thrypticus bellus
leaf miner Elachistidae Elachista maculicerusella
leaf miner Ephydridae Hydrellia griseola
leaf pustule Cantharellales Ceratorhiza rhizodes
leaf pustule Capnodiales Scirrhia rimosa
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia alnetorum
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia coronata
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia isiacae
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia phragmitis
leaf pustule telia doubtful Pucciniales Puccinia tepperi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyalopterus amygdali
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyalopterus persikonus
leaf vagrant summer generation main Aphididae Hyalopterus pruni
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Giraudiella inclusa
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Lasioptera arundinis
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Lasioptera flexuosa
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Lasioptera hungarica
stem inquiline Cecidomyiidae Asynapta phragmitis
stem pustule Ustilaginales Ustilago grandis
stem unknown Apiosporaceae Arthrinium phragmites
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne naasi
unknown unknown doubtful Eurytomidae Tetramesa phragmitis
predator Cecidomyiidae Lestodiplosis gracilis
predator Cecidomyiidae Lestodiplosis inclusae
predator Cecidomyiidae Lestodiplosis tarsonemi
predator Scathophaghidae Cleigastra apicalis
inquiline Chloropidae Calamoncosis minima
inquiline Chloropidae Cryptonevra diadema
inquiline Chloropidae Cryptonevra flavitarsis
inquiline Chloropidae Cryptonevra nigritarsis
inquiline Chloropidae Incertella zuercheri
inquiline incertae sedis Radulidium subulatum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sipha maydis
stem gall Eurytomidae Tetramesa phragmitis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Metopolophium dirhodum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Rhopalosiphum maidis
flower vagrant Aphididae Melanaphis elizabethae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


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