Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phragmites australis

common reed

synonym: Phragmites communis, gigantea J. Gay, longivalvis

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotMicrodochiaceeMicrodochium phragmitis
leafleaf spotNeoramularia phragmitis
leafvagrantCoccinellidaeSubcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata
seedsvagrantLygaeidaeBogdiana myrmica
leafvagrantMiridaeStenodema trispinosa
leafvagrantLygaeidaeIschnodemus suturalis
root collarvagrantrarelyLygaeidaeDimorphopterus spinolae
stemvagrantLygaeidaeDimorphopterus blissoides
leafvagrantMiridaeTeratocoris saundersi
leafvagrantMiridaeTeratocoris antennatus
leafvagrantLygaeidaeIschnodemus sabuleti
fruitvagrantLygaeidaeHolcocranum saturejae
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia graminis
unknownunknownCrambidaeAncylolomia disparalis
stemborerNoctuidaeProtarchanara brevilinea
leafvagrantErebidaeLaelia coenosa
stemborerChloropidaeChlorops interruptus
leafvagrantNoctuidaeLeucania obsoleta
leafvagrantNoctuidaeLeucania zeae
leafvagrantNoctuidaeLeucania palaestinae
leafvagrantmainNoctuidaeMythimna straminea
leafvagrantNoctuidaeMythimna impura
leafvagrantNoctuidaeMythimna pallens
leafvagrantNoctuidaeMythimna languida
leafvagrantNoctuidaeXylena vetusta
leafvagrantNoctuidaeSenta flammea
leafvagrantNoctuidaeXylena vetusta
rootborerNoctuidaeRhizedra lutosa
leafvagrantNoctuidaeApamea unanimis
leafvagrantNoctuidaeApamea sordens
leafvagrantrarelyNoctuidaeLateroligia ophiogramma
stemborerNoctuidaeArenostola phragmitidis
stemborerNoctuidaeLenisa geminipuncta
stemborerNoctuidaeArchanara dissoluta
stemborerNoctuidaeArchanara neurica
stemborerNoctuidaeHydraecia micacea
stemborerNoctuidaeChilodes maritima
stemborerdoubtfulChloropidaeMeromyza nigriventris
inquilineChloropidaeOscinella angustipennis
leafvagrantNoctuidaeSimyra albovenosa
leafvagrantNoctuidaePlusia festucae
stemborerChloropidaePlatycephala planifrons
inquilineChloropidaeCalamoncosis aprica
stemborerChloropidaePlatycephala umbraculata
stemgallChloropidaeEurina lurida
inquilineChloropidaeCryptonevra consimilis
leafvagrantNoctuidaeLeucania loreyi
leafvagrantNoctuidaeLeucania loreyi
stemborerChloropidaeEribolus slesvicensis
leafvagrantErebidaeMacrochilo cribrumalis
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeEuthrix potatoria
stemborerCrambidaeChilo luteellus
leafminerNoctuidaeGlobia sparganii
leafhiddenHesperiidaeOchlodes sylvanus
leafhiddenHesperiidaeCarterocephalus palaemon
stemborerdoubtfulCrambidaeFriedlanderia cicatricella
stemborerCrambidaeSchoenobius gigantella
stemborerCrambidaeDonacaula mucronella
unknownunknownCrambidaeSclerocona acutella
stemborerAnthomyzidaeAnthomyza collini
stemborerAnthomyzidaeAmygdalops thomasseti
stemborerAnthomyzidaeAnagnota bicolor
stemborerAnthomyzidaeAnthomyza gracilis
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEbarrius discolor
leafvagrantDelphacidaeChloriona chinai
leafvagrantCicadellidaeCicadella viridis
leafvagrantdoubtfulCicadellidaeParamesus obtusifrons
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEuides speciosa
leafvagrantDelphacidaeChloriona stenoptera
leafvagrantDelphacidaeDelphax meidionalis
leafvagrantDelphacidaeDelphax ribautianus
leafvagrantCixiidaePentastiridius suezensis
leafvagrantDelphacidaeDelphax inermis
leafvagrantCicadellidaeZyginidia servadeii
leafvagrantCicadellidaeParalimnus lugens
leafvagrantCicadellidaeParalimnus rotundiceps
leafvagrantCicadellidaeParalimnus zachvatkini
leafvagrantDelphacidaeChloriona dorsata
leafvagrantDelphacidaeChloriona smaragdula
leafvagrantDelphacidaeChloriona unicolor
leafvagrantDelphacidaeDelphax crassicornis
leafvagrantDelphacidaeChloriona clavata
leafvagrantDelphacidaeChloriona glaucescens
leafvagrantDelphacidaeChloriona sicula
leafvagrantDelphacidaeChloriona vasconica
leafvagrantDelphacidaeDelphax pulchellus
leafvagrantCicadellidaeCalamotettix taeniatus
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEuides basilinea
leafvagrantCicadellidaeParalimnus phragmitis
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEuides alpina
leafvagrantCixiidaePentastiridius leporinus
stemborerCossidaePhragmataecia castaneae
unknownunknownErirhinidaeIcaris sparganii
unknownunknownErirhinidaeLepidonotaris petax
rootscaleChrysomelidaePlateumaris bracata
unknownunknownChrysomelidaePsylliodes reitteri
rootscaleChrysomelidaeDonacia clavipes
stemborerChloropidaeConioscinella sordidella
stemborerCephidaeCalameuta filiformis
stemscalePseudococcidaeChaetococcus phragmitis
stemborerCrambidaePseudobissetia terrestrellus
stemborerCrambidaeChilo phragmitella
leafhiddenGelechiidaeHelcystogramma lutatella
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis spectrana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAphelia paleana
leafscalePseudococcidaeDysmicoccus walkeri
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeBagous elegans
root collarborerlarvaCurculionidaeNotaris scirpi
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia magnusiana
rootvagrantAphididaeTetraneura africana
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeRhopalosiphum padi
leafvagrantdoubtfulAphididaeMelanaphis donacis
leafvagrantAphididaeTakecallis arundicolens
fruitgallHypocrealesClaviceps purpurea
flowerborerCecidomyiidaeStenodiplosis phragmicola
flowergallTilletialesNeovossia moliniae
leaf budgallChloropidaeLipara lucens
leaf budgallChloropidaeLipara pullitarsis
leaf budgallChloropidaeLipara rufitarsis
leaf budgallChloropidaeLipara similis
leafdownErysiphales ErysiphaceaeBlumeria graminis
leafleaf spotincertae sedisDeightoniella arundinacea
leafleaf spotincertae sedisDeightoniella roumeguerei
leafgallPeronosporalesSclerophthora macrospora
leafgallTarsonemidaeSteneotarsonemus phragmitidis
leafminerdoubtfulAgromyzidaeAgromyza albipennis
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza baetica
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza graminicola
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza hendeli
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza phragmitidis
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza spenceri
leafminerdoubtfulAgromyzidaeCerodontha denticornis
leafminerAgromyzidaeCerodontha incisa
leafminerAgromyzidaeCerodontha phragmitidis
leafminerAgromyzidaeCerodontha phragmitophila
leafminerAgromyzidaeCerodontha pygmaea
leafminerCosmopterigidaeCosmopterix coryphaea
leafminerCosmopterigidaeCosmopterix lienigiella
leafminerdoubtfulCosmopterigidaeCosmopterix orichalcea
leafminerCosmopterigidaeCosmopterix scribaiella
leafminerCrambidaeDonacaula forficella
leafminerdoubtfulDolichopodidaeThrypticus bellus
leafminerElachistidaeElachista maculicerusella
leafminerEphydridaeHydrellia griseola
leafpustuleCantharellalesCeratorhiza rhizodes
leafpustuleCapnodialesScirrhia rimosa
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia alnetorum
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia coronata
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia isiacae
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia phragmitis
leafpustuleteliadoubtfulPuccinialesPuccinia tepperi
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeHyalopterus amygdali
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeHyalopterus persikonus
leafvagrantsummer generationmainAphididaeHyalopterus pruni
stemgallCecidomyiidaeGiraudiella inclusa
stemgallCecidomyiidaeLasioptera arundinis
stemgallCecidomyiidaeLasioptera flexuosa
stemgallCecidomyiidaeLasioptera hungarica
steminquilineCecidomyiidaeAsynapta phragmitis
stempustuleUstilaginalesUstilago grandis
stemunknownApiosporaceaeArthrinium phragmites
rootgallMeloidogynidaeMeloidogyne naasi
unknownunknowndoubtfulEurytomidaeTetramesa phragmitis
predatorCecidomyiidaeLestodiplosis gracilis
predatorCecidomyiidaeLestodiplosis inclusae
predatorCecidomyiidaeLestodiplosis tarsonemi
predatorScathophaghidaeCleigastra apicalis
inquilineChloropidaeCalamoncosis minima
inquilineChloropidaeCryptonevra diadema
inquilineChloropidaeCryptonevra flavitarsis
inquilineChloropidaeCryptonevra nigritarsis
inquilineChloropidaeIncertella zuercheri
inquilineincertae sedisRadulidium subulatum
leafvagrantAphididaeSipha maydis
stemgallEurytomidaeTetramesa phragmitis
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeMetopolophium dirhodum
leafvagrantAphididaeRhopalosiphum maidis
flowervagrantAphididaeMelanaphis elizabethae

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 10.viii.2022