Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Zea

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Spodoptera frugiperda
leaf hidden Thripidae Anaphothrips sudanensis
seeds vagrant adult Carabidae Clivina fossor
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara communis
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara aenea
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara familiaris
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips fasciatus
flower hidden Thripidae Odontothrips meridionalis
flower hidden Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips gowdeyi
unknown unknown Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips minutus
flower predator Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips acanthoscelis
flower predator Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips reuteri
flower hidden Thripidae Chirothrips manicatus
unknown unknown Thripidae Bregmatothrips willcocksi
flower hidden Thripidae Chirothrips kurdistanus
flower hidden Thripidae Tenothrips frici
flower hidden Thripidae Chirothrips hamatus
unknown unknown Thripidae Limothrips consimilis
stem vagrant Thripidae Limothrips denticornis
flower hidden Thripidae Odontothrips loti
flower hidden Thripidae Oxythrips bicolor
leaf vagrant Thripidae Stenothrips graminum
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips atratus
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips flavus
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips fuscipennis
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips major
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips validus
flower hidden Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips setiger
unknown unknown Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips tritici
leaf vagrant Thripidae Aptinothrips rufus
leaf vagrant Thripidae Aptinothrips stylifer
leaf vagrant Thripidae Bolacothrips jordani
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips nigropilosus
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips collaris
flower hidden Thripidae Limothrips cerealium
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips tabaci
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella tenuicornis
leaf vagrant Thripidae Mycterothrips albidicornis
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips intermedius
root vagrant Cerambycidae Dorcadion scopolii
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Tetranychus turkestani
root vagrant Tenebrionidae Opatrum sabulosum
systemic film Peronosporaceae Phytophthora cactorum
systemic film Pythiaceae Globisporangium debaryanum
root gall Pythiaceae Globisporangium irregulare
leaf film Pythiaceae Globisporangium ultimum
systemic down Sclerotiniaceae Botrytis cinerea
stem down Nectriaceae Fusarium oxysporum
stem down Nectriaceae Fusarium poae
stem down Nectriaceae Fusarium sambucinum
leaf leaf spot Botryosphaeriaceae Macrophomina phaseolina
root film Ceratobasidiaceae Rhizoctonia solani
root collar pustule Atheliaceae Athelia rolfsii
root gall Olpidiaceae Olpidium brassicae
stem film Peronosporaceae Phytophthora nicotianae
root film Pythiaceae Pythium aphanidermatum
systemic film Pythiaceae Pythium graminicola
root film Pythiaceae Pythium oligandrum
root film Pythiaceae Pythium volutum
root collar film Magnaporthaceae Gaeumannomyces tritici
stem down Nectriaceae Fusarium equiseti
root film Nectriaceae Fusarium chlamydosporum
systemic pustule Sclerotiniaceae Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
leaf down Peronosporaceae Sclerospora graminicola
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Mycosphaerella zeae
leaf leaf spot Saccotheciaceae Aureobasidium zeae
leaf leaf spot Pleosporaceae Bipolaris maydis
leaf leaf spot Pleosporaceae Bipolaris sorokiniana
leaf leaf spot Pyriculariaceae Pyricularia grisea
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta graminea
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta zeina
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta zeae
leaf leaf spot Diaporthaceae Stenocarpella macrospora
seeds film Eremotheciaceae Eremothecium coryli
leaf leaf spot Pleosporaceae Exserohilum turcicum
leaf vagrant Miridae Creontiades pallidus
leaf leaf spot Glomerellaceae Colletotrichum graminicola
leaf leaf spot Hypocreales incertae sedis Trichothecium roseum
root film Nectriaceae Fusarium verticilloides
systemic film Nectriaceae Fusarium acuminatum
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Graminopassalora graminis
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Nysius cymoides
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus pratensis
fruit vagrant Pyrrhocoridae Pyrrhocoris apterus
flower vagrant Coreidae Leptoglossus gonagra
leaf vagrant Miridae Trigonotylus tenuis
leaf vagrant Miridae Trigonotylus caelestialium
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Toya propinqua
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Dolycoris baccarum
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Liorhyssus hyalinus
root collar borer Crambidae Angustalius malacellus
stem borer Chloropidae Camarota curvipennis
leaf vagrant Erebidae Dysgonia torrida
root vagrant Noctuidae Agrotis ipsilon
leaf vagrant Erebidae Hyphantria cunea
leaf vagrant doubtful Noctuidae Leucania zeae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mythimna unipuncta
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Apamea sordens
stem borer Noctuidae Mesapamea secalis
stem borer Noctuidae Hydraecia micacea
stem borer Noctuidae Oria musculosa
stem borer Noctuidae Sesamia nonagrioides
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Spodoptera littoralis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Thysanoplusia orichalcea
flower vagrant rarely Nolidae Earias insulana
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta rumicis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Autographa gamma
unknown unknown Crambidae Euchromius ocellea
root collar hidden Crambidae Duponchelia fovealis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Helicoverpa armigera
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Heliothis peltigera
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Spodoptera exigua
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Leucania loreyi
stem borer Crambidae Chilo agamemnon
stem borer Crambidae Chilo pulverosellus
stem borer Tineidae Opogona sacchari
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Austroagallia sinuata
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Laodelphax striatellus
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Sogatella vibix
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Zyginidia eremita
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Zyginidia sohrab
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Zyginidia pullula
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Zyginidia scutellaris
leaf hidden Thripidae Anaphothrips obscurus
flower hidden Thripidae Chirothrips aculeatus
leaf vagrant Phlaeothripidae Cephalothrips monilicornis
root borer Chrysomelidae Chaetocnema conducta
leaf hidden Crambidae Loxostege sticticalis
root borer Chrysomelidae Diabrotica virgifera
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Oulema melanopus
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Oulema gallaeciana
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha hammi
stem borer Chloropidae Microcercis trigonella
unknown unknown Crambidae Herpetogramma licarsialis
leaf hidden Crambidae Spoladea recurvalis
leaf hidden Crambidae Nomophila noctuella
stem borer Crambidae Chilo suppressalis
stem borer Crambidae Pseudobissetia terrestrellus
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
flower gall Ustilaginales Sporisorium reilianum
fruit gall Hypocreales Fusarium graminearum
root gall Anguinidae Subanguina radicicola
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aceria tosichella
leaf vagrant Aphididae Schizaphis graminum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae solanella
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
flower borer Chloropidae Oscinella trochanterata
flower gall Ustilaginales Mycosarcoma maydis
leaf down Peronosporales Peronosclerospora maydis
leaf gall Peronosporales Sclerophthora macrospora
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha incisa
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha superciliosa
leaf miner Agromyzidae Pseudonapomyza atra
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia purpurea
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia sorghi
stem borer Chloropidae Oscinella pusilla
stem borer Crambidae Ostrinia nubilalis
stem borer Gelechiidae Ephysteris promptella
stem gall Chloropidae Oscinella frit
root gall Heteroderidae Heterodera avenae
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne chitwoodi
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Tetraneura nigriabdominalis
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Tetraneura ulmi
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Geoica utricularia
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sipha maydis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sipha glyceriae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Rhopalosiphum padi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Metopolophium dirhodum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Rhopalosiphum maidis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sitobion avenae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 10.i.2024