Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Zea mays


organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
rootborerChrysomelidaeChaetocnema conducta
leafhiddenCrambidaeLoxostege sticticalis
rootborerChrysomelidaeDiabrotica virgifera
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeOulema melanopus
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeOulema gallaeciana
leafminerAgromyzidaeCerodontha hammi
stemborerChloropidaeMicrocercis trigonella
leafhiddenCrambidaeSpoladea recurvalis
leafhiddenCrambidaeNomophila noctuella
stemborerCrambidaeChilo suppressalis
stemborerCrambidaePseudobissetia terrestrellus
flowerhiddenThripidaeFrankliniella intonsa
flowergallUstilaginalesSporisorium reilianum
fruitgallHypocrealesFusarium graminearum
rootgallAnguinidaeSubanguina radicicola
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAceria tosichella
leafvagrantAphididaeSchizaphis graminum
leafvagrantAphididaeRhopalosiphum maidis
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis gossypii
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae solanella
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
flowerborerChloropidaeOscinella trochanterata
flowergallUstilaginalesMycosarcoma maydis
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronosclerospora maydis
leafminerAgromyzidaeCerodontha incisa
leafminerAgromyzidaeCerodontha superciliosa
leafminerAgromyzidaePseudonapomyza atra
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia sorghi
stemborerChloropidaeOscinella pusilla
stemborerCrambidaeOstrinia nubilalis
stemborerGelechiidaeEphysteris promptella
stemgallChloropidaeOscinella frit
rootgallHeteroderidaeHeterodera avenae
rootgallMeloidogynidaeMeloidogyne chitwoodi
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaeTetraneura nigriabdominalis
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaeTetraneura ulmi
leafvagrantAphididaeSipha glyceriae
leafvagrantAphididaeSipha maydis
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeMetopolophium dirhodum
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeRhopalosiphum padi
leafvagrantAphididaeSitobion avenae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


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