Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Echinochloa

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
stem scale Pseudococcidae Heterococcus nudus
stem scale Pseudococcidae Trionymus aberrans
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips collaris
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
flower hidden Thripidae Tenothrips frici
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips tabaci
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Tetranychus ludeni
leaf borer Aphelenchoididae Aphelenchoides besseyi
leaf gall Peronosporaceae Sclerophthora macrospora
leaf leaf spot Pleosporaceae Exserohilum turcicum
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Toya propinqua
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Stenodiplosis panici
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Zyginidia scutellaris
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Sogatella vibix
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Zyginidia pullula
flower hidden Thripidae Chirothrips aculeatus
flower hidden Thripidae Chirothrips kurdistanus
flower hidden Thripidae Chirothrips manicatus
leaf vagrant Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips aculeatus
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Oulema tristis
unknown unknown Crambidae Herpetogramma licarsialis
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Abacarus acutatus
unknown unknown Agromyzidae Pseudonapomyza hispanica
leaf vagrant Aphididae Rhopalosiphum maidis
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Tetraneura ulmi
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
fruit gall Ustilaginales Moesziomyces bullatus
leaf down Peronosporales Sclerospora graminicola
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha incisa
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha muscina
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha superciliosa
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza mobilis
leaf miner Ephydridae Hydrellia griseola
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia graminis
leaf pustule Ustilaginales Ustilago trichophora
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Tetraneura caerulescens
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Tetraneura nigriabdominalis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sipha maydis
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Anoecia corni
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Anoecia vagans
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sitobion avenae
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Anoecia major
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Rhopalosiphum padi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 6.ii.2024