Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Brachypodium pinnatum

tor-grass

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
stem hidden Pseudococcidae Fonscolombia abdita
leaf leaf spot Plectosphaerellaceae Spermosporina graminella
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta brachypodii
unknown unknown Pseudococcidae Antonina purpurea
leaf vagrant Miridae Miridius quadrivirgatus
flower vagrant Miridae Megaloceroea recticornis
leaf vagrant Miridae Stenodema calcarata
leaf vagrant Berytidae Berytinus clavipes
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Pararge xiphioides
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Epipsilia latens
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Xestia xanthographa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mythimna ferrago
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mythimna albipuncta
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mythimna l-album
root collar vagrant Noctuidae Tholera cespitis
stem vagrant Noctuidae Calamia tridens
stem borer Noctuidae Oria musculosa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Deltote pygarga
leaf vagrant Erebidae Coscinia striata
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Rivula sericealis
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Coenonympha arcania
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Melanargia occitanica
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Pararge aegeria
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Minois dryas
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Ochlodes sylvanus
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Melanargia galathea
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Erebia aethiops
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Aphantopus hyperantus
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Coenonympha dorus
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Coenonympha glycerion
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Carterocephalus palaemon
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Thymelicus lineola
unknown unknown Sphaeroceridae Apteromyia claviventris
unknown unknown Sphaeroceridae Minilimosina fungicola
unknown unknown Sphaeroceridae Minilimosina parvula
stem borer Anthomyzidae Anthomyza pallida
stem borer Opmyzidae Geomyza hackmani
leaf vagrant Tingidae Agramma minutum
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Jassargus obtusivalvis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Planaphrodes bifasciatus
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Turrutus socialis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Adarrus bellevoyei
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Adarrus exornatus
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Hyledelphax elegantulus
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Stiroma affinis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Adarrus multinotatus
leaf vagrant doubtful Delphacidae Eurysanoides douglasi
leaf vagrant doubtful Cicadellidae Allygidius abbreviatus
leaf vagrant Unknown code! Cicadellidae Allygidius commutatus
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Anoscopus albifrons
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Arocephalus languidus
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Elymana sulphurella
leaf vagrant adult Cercopidae Cercopis sanguinolenta
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Eurysa brunnea
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Mocydia crocea
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Zyginidia scutellaris
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Eurysella brunnea
root vagrant larva Cercopidae Haematoloma dorsata
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Goldeus harpago
leaf vagrant Aphrophoridae Neophilaenus albipennis
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Ribautodelphax pungens
leaf scale Coccidae Eriopeltis stammeri
stem borer Chloropidae Conioscinella frontella
stem borer Chloropidae Conioscinella obscuripila
unknown scale Eriococcidae Rhizococcus echinatus
root collar scale Eriococcidae Rhizococcus munroi
leaf scale Eriococcidae Greenisca gouxi
leaf scale Eriococcidae Greenisca placida
leaf scale Eriococcidae Gregoporia rosaceus
leaf scale Eriococcidae Acanthococcus acutus
leaf scale Eriococcidae Acanthococcus pseudinsignis
unknown scale Eriococcidae Acanthococcus herbaceus
leaf scale Coccidae Eriopeltis varleyi
leaf scale Eriococcidae Acanthococcus agropyri
leaf scale Coccidae Eriopeltis festucae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Melanaphis pyraria
fruit gall Hypocreales Claviceps purpurea
leaf bud gall Eurytomidae Tetramesa brachypodii
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphaceae Blumeria graminis
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria tenuis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha pygmaea
leaf miner Elachistidae Elachista anserinella
leaf miner Elachistidae Elachista argentella
leaf miner main Elachistidae Elachista chrysodesmella
leaf miner Elachistidae Elachista gangabella
leaf miner Elachistidae Elachista obliquella
leaf miner Elachistidae Elachista stabilella
leaf miner Elachistidae Elachista subalbidella
leaf miner Elachistidae Elachista subocellea
leaf pustule Cantharellales Ceratorhiza rhizodes
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia brachypodii
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia coronata
leaf stripe uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia striiformis
leaf stripe Tilletiales Tilletia olida
leaf stripe Ustilaginales Ustilago striiformis
stem down doubtful Hypocreales Epichloe typhina
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Mayetiola hellwigi
stem gall Chloropidae Chlorops strigulus
leaf vagrant Eriococcidae Greenisca brachypodii
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sipha maydis
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Anoecia major

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 25.i.2023