Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Avenella flexuosa

synonym: Aira, Deschampsia flexuosa; Deschampsia stricta

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeStrophosoma melanogrammum
leafvagrantThripidaeAptinothrips stylifer
flowerhiddenThripidaeChirothrips manicatus
stemborerChloropidaeConioscinella frontella
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTenthredopsis nassata
stemborerCephidaeCalameuta pallipes
leafscaleEriococcidaeAcanthococcus inermis
leafscaleEriococcidaeAcanthococcus insignis
leafscaleCoccidaeEriopeltis festucae
leafscaleEriococcidaeAcanthococcus pseudinsignis
leafscaleCoccidaeEriopeltis stammeri
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAceria flexuosae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza flaveola
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza richteri
flowerborerCecidomyiidaeDasineura airae
leafminerElachistidaeElachista adscitella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista albidella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista bifasciella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista exactella
leafminerdoubtfulElachistidaeElachista nielswolffi
leafminermainElachistidaeElachista nobilella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista pullicomella
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria tenuis
root collarvagrantAphididaeJacksonia papillata
leafvagrantAphididaeMetopolophium tenerum
minerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza pedestris
leafdownErysiphales ErysiphaceaeBlumeria graminis
leafgallAnguinidaeAnguina graminis
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia coronata
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia graminis
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces airae-flexuosae
leafstripeTilletialesTilletia flectens
leafstripeUstilaginalesUstilago striiformis
stemgallCecidomyiidaeHybolasioptera fasciata
stemgallCecidomyiidaeLasioptera calamagrostidis
stemgallEurytomidaeTetramesa airae
rootgallAnguinidaeSubanguina radicicola
leafvagrantAphididaeAtheroides serrulatus
leafvagrantAphididaeChaetosiphella berlesei
leafvagrantAphididaeSipha maydis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 21.ix.2020