Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Alopecurus geniculatus

bent foxtail, marsh foxtail

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara plebeja
leaf leaf spot Ploettnerulaceae Rhynchobrunnera orthospora
predator Pteromalidae Chlorocytus planus
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Graminopassalora graminis
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Javesella obscurella
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia coronata
leaf leaf spot incertae sedis Mastigosporium album
leaf vagrant Aphididae Schizaphis graminum
fruit gall Hypocreales Claviceps purpurea
flower borer Cecidomyiidae Stenodiplosis geniculati
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphaceae Blumeria graminis
leaf miner Ephydridae Hydrellia griseola
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia graminis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia perplexans
leaf stripe Urocystidales Urocystis alopecuri
leaf stripe Ustilaginales Ustilago striiformis
stem borer Eurytomidae Tetramesa angustipenne
stem gall Chloropidae Oscinella nitidissima
stem gall Eurytomidae Tetramesa fumipennis
stem vagrant Aphididae Laingia psammae
root gall Anguinidae Subanguina radicicola
leaf vagrant Aphididae Atheroides serrulatus
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sipha glyceriae
leaf vagrant main Aphididae Sitobion alopecuri
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sipha maydis
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Anoecia furcata


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 2.xi.2023