Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Alopecurus pratensis

meadow foxtail

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips pillichi
leaf vagrant Thripidae Stenothrips graminum
flower vagrant Thripidae Thrips discolor
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips minutissimus
leaf vagrant Thripidae Aptinothrips stylifer
leaf vagrant Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips aculeatus
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella tenuicornis
flower hidden Thripidae Chirothrips aculeatus
leaf predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips albicinctus
leaf vagrant Thripidae Aptinothrips rufus
flower predator Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips subtilissimus
flower hidden Thripidae Limothrips cerealium
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara strenua
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara aulica
unknown unknown Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips tritici
unknown unknown Thripidae Aptinothrips elegans
systemic hidden Thripidae Firmothrips firmus
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips tabaci
leaf leaf spot Ploettnerulaceae Mastigosporium rubricosum
leaf leaf spot Ploettnerulaceae Rhynchobrunnera orthospora
leaf leaf spot Phyllachoraceae Telimenella gangraena
leaf leaf spot Spermospora ciliata
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Graminopassalora graminis
root collar vagrant Miridae Capsus ater
flower vagrant Miridae Leptopterna dolabrata
leaf vagrant Miridae Stenodema laevigata
leaf vagrant Miridae Stenodema trispinosa
leaf vagrant Miridae Stenodema calcarata
flower vagrant Miridae Acetropis longirostris
flower vagrant Miridae Stenotus binotatus
leaf vagrant Berytidae Berytinus minor
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Phyllobius thalassinus
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Apamea scolopacina
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Eremobia ochroleuca
leaf vagrant doubtful Noctuidae Crypsedra gemmea
stem borer Chloropidae Meromyza variegata
stem borer Chloropidae Meromyza saltatrix
stem borer Chloropidae Cetema cereris
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Ochlodes sylvanus
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Aphantopus hyperantus
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Carterocephalus palaemon
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Thymelicus lineola
stem borer Anthomyzidae Anthomyza gracilis
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Megadelphax sordidulus
leaf vagrant Thripidae Bolacothrips jordani
flower hidden Thripidae Chirothrips hamatus
flower hidden Thripidae Chirothrips manicatus
root borer Chrysomelidae Chaetocnema chlorophana
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Dolerus gonager
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Dolerus haematodes
stem borer Cephidae Calameuta punctata
stem gall Chloropidae Oscinella frit
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Dolerus nigratus
stem borer Chloropidae Oscinella alopecuri
stem borer Chloropidae Oscinella phlei
stem borer Chloropidae Oscinella ventricosi
stem vagrant Thripidae Limothrips denticornis
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Selandria serva
stem vagrant Tenthredinidae Euura clitellata
leaf scale Eriococcidae Acanthococcus pseudinsignis
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculodes mckenziei
leaf stripe Ustilaginales Ustilago alopecurivora
leaf leaf spot main incertae sedis Mastigosporium album
root collar borer larva Curculionidae Notaris scirpi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Rhopalosiphum padi
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sipha elegans
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aceria tosichella
fruit gall Hypocreales Claviceps purpurea
flower borer Cecidomyiidae Dasineura alopecuri
flower borer Cecidomyiidae Stenodiplosis geniculati
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia merceri
flower gall Eriophyidae Aceria cornuta
leaf miner>borer Ochsenheimeriidae Ochsenheimeria taurella
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphaceae Blumeria graminis
leaf leaf spot Georgefischeriales Jamesdicksonia dactylidis
leaf gall Eriophyidae Abacarus hystrix
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria tenuis
leaf gall Peronosporales Sclerophthora macrospora
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza mobilis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza nigrella
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha calamagrostidis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha denticornis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha incisa
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia fuscula
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia nigra
leaf miner Agromyzidae Metopomyza flavonotata
leaf miner older larva Coleophoridae Coleophora lixella
leaf miner Elachistidae Elachista albifrontella
leaf miner Elachistidae Elachista dimicatella
leaf miner Elachistidae Elachista maculicerusella
leaf miner Ephydridae Hydrellia griseola
leaf pustule Cantharellales Ceratorhiza rhizodes
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia coronata
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia graminis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia perplexans
leaf pustule uredinia telia rarely Pucciniales Puccinia poae-nemoralis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces alopecuri
leaf stripe uredinia telia rarely Pucciniales Puccinia striiformis
leaf stripe Urocystidales Urocystis alopecuri
stem borer Chloropidae Oscinella vastator
stem borer Eurytomidae Eurytoma atra
stem borer Eurytomidae Tetramesa angustipenne
stem gall Eurytomidae Tetramesa fumipennis
stem vagrant Aphididae Laingia psammae
root collar gall Cecidomyiidae Mayetiola alopecuri
root gall Anguinidae Subanguina radicicola
inquiline Eriophyidae Aculodes dubius
leaf vagrant Aphididae Atheroides hirtellus
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sitobion avenae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Atheroides serrulatus
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sipha maydis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Metopolophium dirhodum
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Sitobion fragariae
leaf vagrant doubtful Aphididae Schizaphis nigerrima


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 20.xi.2023