Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Lolium multiflorum

italian rye-grass

synonym: Lolium aristatum, boucheanum, italicum, multiflorum subsp. italicum, siculum

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia holci-lanati
leaf leaf spot Ploettnerulaceae Oculimacula acuformis
leaf leaf spot Spermospora lolii
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia pusilla
stem borer Noctuidae Oria musculosa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mythimna prominens
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Zyginidia pullula
flower hidden Thripidae Chirothrips manicatus
flower hidden Thripidae Limothrips cerealium
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculodes mckenziei
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Abacarus compactus
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
fruit gall Tilletiales Tilletia vankyi
flower gall Tilletiales Tilletia lolii
flower gall Ustilaginales Ustilago bullata
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphaceae Blumeria graminis
leaf gall Aphididae Diuraphis frequens
leaf gall Eriophyidae Abacarus hystrix
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha incisa
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha muscina
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia coronata
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia graminis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia loliicola
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia loliina
leaf stripe uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia striiformis
leaf stripe Urocystidales Urocystis bolivarii
stem borer main Chloropidae Oscinella vastator
stem gall Chloropidae Oscinella frit
stem gall Chloropidae Oscinella nitidissima
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sipha maydis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sitobion avenae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Rhopalosiphum padi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Sitobion fragariae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 9.viii.2022