Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Anthoxanthum odoratum

sweet vernal-grass

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Nymphalidae Erebia alberganus
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniaceae Puccinia poae-nemoralis
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Graminopassalora graminis
leaf vagrant Miridae Acetropis gimmerthali
stem borer Chloropidae Incertella albipalpis
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Erebia aethiops
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Thymelicus lineola
root scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus hordei
stem borer Opomyzidae Opomyza petrei
stem borer Chloropidae Conioscinella mimula
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Sardius argus
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Anoscopus albifrons
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Graphocraerus ventralis
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Ribautodelphax angulosus
stem borer Chloropidae Conioscinella frontella
leaf scale Eriococcidae Acanthococcus insignis
stem scale Eriococcidae Greenisca glyceriae
unknown unknown Gelechiidae Sophronia semicostella
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sitobion avenae
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
fruit gall Hypocreales Claviceps purpurea
flower gall Tilletiales Tilletia anthoxanthi
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphaceae Blumeria graminis
leaf leaf spot Georgefischeriales Jamesdicksonia dactylidis
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria tenuis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha incisa
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia nigra
leaf miner older larva Coleophoridae Coleophora lixella
leaf miner main Cosmopterigidae Cosmopterix orichalcea
leaf miner Elachistidae Elachista dimicatella
leaf miner Elachistidae Elachista humilis
leaf pustule Cantharellales Ceratorhiza rhizodes
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia anthoxanthina
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia borealis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia coronata
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia graminis
leaf stripe Urocystidales Urocystis roivainenii
leaf stripe Ustilaginales Ustilago striiformis
stem down Hypocreales Epichloe typhina
stem gall Chloropidae Oscinella frit
stem gall Chloropidae Oscinella nitidissima
root gall Anguinidae Subanguina radicicola
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Sitobion fragariae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sipha maydis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 15.viii.2023