Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Phalaris

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotDothideomycetes incertae sedisAsteromella phalaridis
leafleaf spotMassarinaceaeStagonospora foliicola
leafleaf spotMycosphaerellaceaeGraminopassalora graminis
leafleaf spotPloettnerulaceaeRhynchosporium secalis
leafleaf spotMycosphaerellaceaeRamularia pusilla
leafleaf spotMycosphaerellaceaeRamularia holci-lanati
leafvagrantMiridaeCapsus wagneri
leafvagrantMiridaeStenodema trispinosa
predatorNabidaeNabis rugosus
root collarvagrantrarelyLygaeidaeDimorphopterus spinolae
leafpredatordoubtfulMiridaeDicyphus globulifer
flowervagrantMiridaeLeptopterna dolabrata
leafvagrantLygaeidaeIschnodemus sabuleti
leafvagrantScutelleridaeEurygaster integriceps
leafvagrantMiridaeTeratocoris antennatus
leafvagrantMiridaeStenodema laevigata
leafpustulePuccinialesPuccinia addita
rootvagrantCerambycidaeIberodorcadion becerrae
rootvagrantCerambycidaeIberodorcadion ferdinandi
rootvagrantCerambycidaeIberodorcadion lusitanicum
rootvagrantCerambycidaeIberodorcadion zenete
rootvagrantCerambycidaeIberodorcadion nigrosparsum
rootvagrantCerambycidaeIberodorcadion suturale
rootvagrantCerambycidaeIberodorcadion fuentei
rootvagrantCerambycidaeIberodorcadion mus
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza hendeli
unknownunknownCecidomyiidaePaneliusia albimanoides
leafvagrantNoctuidaeMythimna straminea
leafvagrantNoctuidaeMythimna pallens
stemborerCerambycidaeCalamobius filum
leafvagrantNoctuidaeMythimna conigera
leafvagrantNoctuidaeMythimna pudorina
leafvagrantNoctuidaeMythimna impura
flowervagrantNoctuidaeApamea remissa
leafvagrantNoctuidaeApamea unanimis
leafvagrantNoctuidaeApamea sordens
leafvagrantNoctuidaeLateroligia ophiogramma
stemborerNoctuidaeMesapamea secalella
stemborerNoctuidaeArchanara neurica
leafvagrantNoctuidaeSimyra albovenosa
leafvagrantNoctuidaePlusia festucae
stemborerspring generationChloropidaeChlorops limbatus
flowerborersummer generationChloropidaeChlorops limbatus
leafvagrantNoctuidaeDeltote pygarga
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeEuthrix potatoria
stemborerNoctuidaeHydraecia micacea
leafhiddenHesperiidaeOchlodes sylvanus
leafhiddenHesperiidaeThymelicus sylvestris
leafhiddenHesperiidaeCarterocephalus palaemon
leafhiddenHesperiidaeHeteropterus morpheus
leafhiddenHesperiidaeThymelicus lineola
unknownunknowndoubtfulBuprestidaeSphenoptera gemmata
leafvagrantCicadellidaePaluda flaveola
leafvagrantRicaniidaeRicania hedenborgi
leafvagrantCicadellidaeCicadula placida
leafvagrantCicadellidaeErzaleus metrius
leafvagrantCicadellidaeBalclutha rhenana
leafvagrantCicadellidaeZyginidia scutellaris
leafvagrantCicadellidaeParaliburnia adela
leafvagrantDelphacidaeStenocranus major
unknownunknownErirhinidaeIcaris sparganii
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeBagous elegans
leafvagrantThripidaeHemianaphothrips articulosus
ThripidaeStenchaetothrips biformis
rootborerChrysomelidaeChaetocnema mannerheimii
rootborerChrysomelidaeChaetocnema aridula
rootborerChrysomelidaeChaetocnema semicoerulea
rootborerChrysomelidaePsylliodes picina
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeOulema duftschmidi
rootscaleChrysomelidaeDonacia clavipes
leafvagrantdoubtfulCephidaeCephus fumipennis
stemborerChloropidaeMicrocercis trigonella
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeSelandria serva
stemvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura clitellata
stemborerCephidaeCalameuta filiformis
stemborerCephidaeCephus infuscatus
leafscaleEriococcidaeAcanthococcus insignis
leafhiddenGelechiidaeHelcystogramma rufescens
leafhiddenTortricidaeCnephasia incertana
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAceria phalardis
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAculodes mckenziei
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeBagous frivaldszkyi
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeTournotaris bimaculata
fruitborerCecidomyiidaeConiophora graminicola
leafvagrantEriococcidaeGreenisca brachypodii
leafvagrantAphididaeMetopolophium fasciatum
leafvagrantAphididaeSchizaphis graminum
leafvagrantAphididaeisraelaphis lambersi
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeSitobion fragariae
fruitgallHypocrealesClaviceps purpurea
fruitgallTilletialesTilletia menieri
flowerborerCecidomyiidaeSitodiplosis phalaridis
flowerborermainChloropidaeOscinella trochanterata
flowergallAnguinidaeAnguina agrostis
leafborerCecidomyiidaeEpicalamus phalaridis
leafdownErysiphales ErysiphaceaeBlumeria graminis
leafleaf spotDothidealesDilophospora alopecuri
leaffilmUstilaginalesTranzscheliella hypodytes
leafgallEriophyidaeAbacarus hystrix
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria tenuis
leafgallPeronosporalesSclerophthora macrospora
leafminerAgromyzidaeCerodontha denticornis
leafminerAgromyzidaeCerodontha incisa
leafminerAgromyzidaeCerodontha phalaridis
leafminerAgromyzidaeCerodontha pygmaea
leafminerAgromyzidaeCerodontha zoerneri
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia fuscula
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia nigra
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza flaveola
leafminermainAgromyzidaeAgromyza albipennis
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza mobilis
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza nigrella
leafminerdoubtfulAgromyzidaeAgromyza nigripes
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza nigrociliata
leafminerAgromyzidaePseudonapomyza atra
leafminerCosmopterigidaeCosmopterix orichalcea
leafminerElachistidaeElachista albifrontella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista argentella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista humilis
leafminerElachistidaeElachista maculicerusella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista pomerana
leafminerEphydridaeHydrellia griseola
leafpustuleCantharellalesCeratorhiza rhizodes
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia coronata
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia graminis
leafpustuleuredinia teliamainPuccinialesPuccinia sessilis
leafstripeBlastocladialesPhysoderma gerhardtii
leafstripeBlastocladialesPhysoderma graminis
leafstripeMicrobotryalesUstilentyloma brefeldii
leafstripeuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia striiformis
leafstripeUstilaginalesUstilago echinata
leafstripeUstilaginalesUstilago striiformis
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeRhopalomyzus lonicerae
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAcaralox arundinaceus
stemborerChloropidaeOscinella pusilla
stemborerEurytomidaeTetramesa longicornis
stemgallCecidomyiidaeLasioptera calamagrostidis
stemgallCecidomyiidaeMayetiola phalaris
stemgallChloropidaeOscinella angularis
root collarvagrantsummer generationAphididaeRhopalomyzus poae
rootgallAnguinidaeSubanguina radicicola
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeSemiaphis sphondylii
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeHyalopterus pruni
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeRhopalosiphum padi
leafvagrantAphididaeSipha elegans
leafvagrantAphididaeSipha glyceriae
leafvagrantAphididaeSipha maydis
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAnoecia major
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaeRhopalosiphum oxyacanthae
leafvagrantmainAphididaeSchizaphis longicaudata
leafstripeAphididaeDiuraphis noxia
leafvagrantAphididaeSitobion avenae
leafvagrantAphididaeSitobion graminearum

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 30.ix.2022