Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Apera silky-bent

(For a dichotomous table for galls on Apera by Hans Roskam click here)

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a larva: mandible with 1 tooth; at the start of the mine (often within a leaf sheath!) at the outside an egg shell: Hydrellia griseola

1b mandible with 2 teeth; nog egg shell visible (Agromyzidae) => 2

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a larva: cephalic skeleton of Agromyzidae-type; pupation outside the mine: Agromyza nigrociliata **

2b cephalic skeleton of Phytomyzinae-type; pupation either within or outside the mine => 3

3a pupation outside the mine => 4

3b puparium within the mine => 5

4a larva: rear spiraculum with 7-8 papillae; larva and puparium bear on each segment a transverse row of long papillae, as long as the width of the segment: Pseudonapomyza atra

4b rear spiraculum with 3 papillae; larva and puparium without such long spines: Liriomyza flaveola

5a puparium: front spiracula penetrate the epidermis: Chromatomyia nigra

5b puparium not connected to the outside world => 6

9a puparium glued with some frass inside the mine => 10

9b puparium not fixed with frass, but anchored with a few threads of secreted material: Cerodontha pygmaea

10a puparium: rear spiracula, seen from above, form a V: Cerodontha lateralis

10b rear spiracula, seen from above, form a U: Cerodontha superciliosa

** See also the key to grass-inhabiting Agromyza larvae.

Tables for all parasites per species

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