Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Milium effusum

wood millet

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
stemborerCephidaeCephus nigrinus
leafscaleCoccidaeEriopeltis festucae
leafminerCosmopterigidaeCosmopterix orichalcea
leafstripeUstilaginalesUstilago milii
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeRhopalosiphum padi
leafvagrantAphididaeSitobion avenae
leafdownErysiphales ErysiphaceaeBlumeria graminis
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria tenuis
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza mobilis
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza nigrella
leafminerAgromyzidaeCerodontha incisa
leafminerAgromyzidaeCerodontha muscina
leafminerAgromyzidaeCerodontha pygmaea
leafminermainAgromyzidaeChromatomyia milii
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia nigra
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza flaveola
leafminerElachistidaeElachista albifrontella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista apicipunctella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista atricomella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista bifasciella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista cingillella
leafminermainElachistidaeElachista diederichsiella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista dimicatella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista elegans
leafminerElachistidaeElachista luticomella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista metella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista obliquella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista stabilella
leafminerElachistidaeElachista unifasciella
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia coronata
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia graminis
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia milii-effusi
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeSitobion fragariae
leafpustuleuredinia teliararelyPuccinialesPuccinia poae-nemoralis
stemgallCecidomyiidaeMayetiola spec. on Milium effusum


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 20.iii.2020