Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Hordeum barley

(For a dichotomous table for galls on Hordeum by Hans Roskam click here)

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a the larve mines from a transportable, helicoidal case, making fleck mines: Apterona helicinella

1b the larva mines from within => 2

1c gallen etc => Tabellen voor alle parasieten per soort

2a larva with thoracic feet and a chitinised head => 3

2b larva a feetless and apparently headless maggot => 4

3a large blotch; the larve mines all its life in the blade; eastern Mediterranean: Syringopais temperatella

3b mine undescribed, probably a small gallery, descending into the base of the leaf; older larvae live as stem borers; all Europe: Ochsenheimeria taurella & urella

4a larva: mandible with 1 tooth; at the start of the mine (often in the leaf sheath) at the outside an egg shell: Hydrellia griseola

4b mandible with 2 or more teeth, no egg shell visible => 5

5a larva: cephalic skeleton with three arms pointing rearwards; pupation outside the mine => 6 *

5b cephalic skeleton with two arms pointing rearwards; pupation within or outside the mine => 13

6a larva: rear spiraculum with 3 papillae that are elongated and sigmoid => 7

6b rear spiraculum not that unusual => 8

7a larva: front spiraculum with 8 papillae: A. luteitarsis

7b front spiraculum with 11-14 papillae: A. intermittens

8a larva: ventrally, behind the mandibles, a field with spinulose warts =>9

8b no such field: A. megalopsis

9a larva: mandible with 4 teeth: Agromya albipennis

9b mandible with 3 teeth (basal one smaller than the distal two) => 10

9c mandible with 2 teeth => 11

10a larva: abdomen segment 8 dorsally spinulose over its entire width; puparium orange: Agromyza nigrociliata

10b abdomen segment 8 dorsally spinulose only near the anterior and posterior margin; puparium black: Agromyza ambigua

11a larva solitary; rear end of cut off at a right angle: Agromyza rondensis

11b larvae communal; rear end of cut off obliquely => 12

12a larvae in June and August (2 generations): Agromyza mobilis

12b larvae in July (1 generation): Agromyza nigrella

13a pupation outside the mine => 14

13b puparium within the mine => 17

14a larva and puparium set with transverse rows of long spine-like papillae => 15

14b larva and puparium not with such rows of spines => 16

15a larva: anterior spiraculum with 5, posterior one with 3-5 papillae: Pseudonapomyza spinosa

15b 7-8 and 7 papillae, respectively: Pseudonapomyza atra

16a larva: posterior spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza flaveola & trifolii

16b posterior spiraculum with 9 papillae: Liriomyza graminivora

16c the larva of Liriomyza orbona is not known

17a puparium: front or rear spiracula penetrate the epidermis => 18

17b puparium not connected with the outside world => 21

18a larva and puparium with strongly lengthened, fang-shaped, rear spiracula that are anchored in the leaf parenchyma: Chromatomyia milii

18b rear spiracula normal => 19

19a puparium shining black; rear spiracula penetrate: Cerodontha muscina

19b puparium orange brown; front spiracula penetrate => 20

20a puparium monochromic orange brown; front spiraculum indistinctly bifid: Chromatomyia nigra

20b puparium yellow-orange brown with a darker ventral length band; front spiraculum fist-shaped: Chromatomyia fuscula

21a larva: rear spiraculum with 11-16 papillae; puparium in the leaf sheath: Cerodontha denticornis

21b rear spiraculum with 6 papillae at most; puparium in the blade => 22

22a larva: rearwards pointing arms of the cephalic skeleton colourless, transparant; puparia attached to the inside of the mine with strands of silk => 23

22b rearwards pointing arms almost entirely black; puparia loose in the mine => 24

23a larva: the black warts ot the outside of the rear spiracula small, without a “root”: Cerodontha incisa

23b these warts large, with a deep “root”: Cerodontha pygmaea

24a puparium: rear spiracula, seen from above, form a V: Cerodontha lateralis

24b rear spiracula, seen from above, form a U: Cerodontha superciliosa

* See also the key to grass-inhabiting Agromyza larvae.

Not included in the key: Coleophora perplexella.

Tables for all parasites per species

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