Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Hordeum vulgare subsp. distichon

two-rowed barley

synonym: Hordeum distichon, zeocriton

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia collo-cygni
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia graminis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Noctua pronuba
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Mayetiola destructor
stem gall Chloropidae Chlorops pumilionis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Rhopalosiphum padi
leaf vagrant Aphididae Rhopalosiphum maidis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Metopolophium dirhodum
flower gall doubtful Ustilaginales Ustilago avenae
flower gall Ustilaginales Ustilago hordei
flower gall Ustilaginales Ustilago nuda
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia hordei
leaf stripe uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia striiformis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sipha maydis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza ambigua
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Anoecia haupti
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza megalopsis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Cerodontha denticornis
leaf miner Ephydridae Hydrellia griseola


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 21.vii.2022