Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Abies cephalonica

greek fir

synonym: Abies apollinis, reginae-amaliae

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
scaleCoccidaePhysokermes hellenicus
stemscalePseudococcidaePhenacoccus longoi
leafscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes newsteadi
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus rafni
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus suspectus
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia nigrojubata
flowerborerTortricidaeBarbara herrichiana
stemborerBuprestidaeDicerca herbsti
leafvagrantadultCercopidaeHaematoloma dorsata
stemborerCurculionidaeCryphalus piceae
stemborerCurculionidaeCrypturgus parallelocollis
stemborerCurculionidaePityokteines curvidens
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus pityographus
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus cephaloniae
leafscaleDiaspididaeDynaspidiotus abieticola
stemscaleCoccidaePhysokermes hemicryphus
leafscaleCoccidaeNemolecanium graniforme
stemscaleMargarodidaeMarchalina hellenica
flowerborerPyralidaeDioryctria resiniphila
leaf budborerTortricidaeZeiraphera ratzeburgiana
leaf budborerXyelidaePleroneura coniferarum
leafscaleDiaspididaeDynaspidiotus abietis
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon cephiformis
flowerborerCecidomyiidaeResseliella piceae
leafgallAphididaeMindarus abietinus
leafgallsummer generationAphididaeDreyfusia nordmannianae
leafminerTortricidaeEpinotia fraternana
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMelampsora abietis-caprearum
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMelampsorella caryophyllacearum
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMilesina blechni
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMilesina dieteliana
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMilesina kriegeriana
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMilesina scolopendrii
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMilesina vogesiaca
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPucciniastrum epilobii
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPucciniastrum goeppertianum
stemgallsummer generationAphididaeDreyfusia prelli
stemvagrantrarelyAphididaeElatobium abietinum
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara confinis
stemgallAphididaeDreyfusia piceae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 22.xi.2021