Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Abies cilicica

cilician fir, taurus fir

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
predator Chalcididae Brachymeria tibialis
predator Pteromalidae Mesopolobus mediterraneus
predator Pteromalidae Mesopolobus dubius
predator Pteromalidae Pteromalus chrysos
predator Torymidae Monodontomerus aereus
flower borer Torymidae Megastigmus suspectus
leaf vagrant Miridae Atractotomus persquamosus
leaf vagrant Miridae Atractotomus magnicornis
stem scale Coccidae Physokermes hellenicus
flower borer Torymidae Megastigmus pinus
flower borer Torymidae Megastigmus rafni
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia tenella
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia rutilipennis
stem borer Curculionidae Pityokteines marketae
stem borer Curculionidae Cryphalus piceae
stem borer Curculionidae Xyleborinus saxesenii
stem borer Curculionidae Pityokteines curvidens
stem borer Siricidae Xeris pallicostae
leaf hidden Tortricidae Choristoneura murinana
leaf gall summer generation Aphididae Dreyfusia nordmannianae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Pucciniastrum goeppertianum
stem gall Aphididae Dreyfusia piceae
stem vagrant Aphididae Cinara confinis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 14.vii.2022