Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Abies nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani

synonym: Abies bornmuelleriana, nordmanniana subsp. bornmuelleriana

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMelampsorella caryophyllacearum
leafscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes juniperi
scaleCoccidaeNemolecanium aptii
stemborerdoubtfulCurculionidaeHylastes ater
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus milleri
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus pinus
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus rafni
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus specularis
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus suspectus
stemborerCurculionidaeIps sexdentatus
stemborerCurculionidaeOrthotomicus erosus
stemborerCurculionidaeXyleborinus saxesenii
stemborerCurculionidaeTrypodendron lineatum
stemborerCurculionidaeCryphalus piceae
stemborerCurculionidaePityokteines curvidens
stemborerCurculionidaePityokteines vorontzowi
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus pityographus
leafscaleDiaspididaeDynaspidiotus abieticola
stemscaleDiaspididaeDynaspidiotus britannicus
stemborerCurculionidaePissodes piniphilus
stemborerSiricidaeXeris pallicostae
leafscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes newsteadi
leafscaleDiaspididaeDynaspidiotus abietis
leafscaleCoccidaeCoccus hesperidum
stemscaleCoccidaePhysokermes piceae
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara pectinatae
stemgallAphididaeDreyfusia piceae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 15.xii.2021