Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Abies nordmanniana

caucasian fir

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotDrthioraceaeDelphinella abietis
leafvagrantMiridaeAtractotomus magnicornis
leafvagrantMiridaePhoenicocoris dissimilis
scaleCoccidaePhysokermes hellenicus
scaleCoccidaeNemolecanium aptii
stemborerCerambycidaeTrichoferus fasciculatus
leafvagrantSphingidaeSphinx pinastri
leafvagrantGeometridaePeribatodes secundaria
stemborerdoubtfulCurculionidaeHylastes angustatus
stemborerdoubtfulCurculionidaeHylastes ater
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus suspectus
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus milleri
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus pinus
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus rafni
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus specularis
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia nigrojubata
stemborerCurculionidaeIps sexdentatus
stemborerCurculionidaePityokteines marketae
stemborerCurculionidaeCryphalus piceae
stemborerCurculionidaePityokteines spinidens
stemborerCurculionidaeTrypodendron lineatum
stemborerCurculionidaeHylurgops palliatus
stemscaleMargarodidaeMarchalina hellenica
flowerborerPyralidaeDioryctria abietella
leafhiddenTortricidaeArgyrotaenia ljungiana
leafvagrantPhytoptidaeNalepella shevtchenkoi
leafvagrantPhytoptidaeNalepella ednae
leafscaleDiaspididaeDynaspidiotus abietis
leafscalePseudococcidaePhenacoccus piceae
flowerborerCecidomyiidaeResseliella piceae
leafgallAphididaeMindarus abietinus
leafgallsummer generationAphididaeDreyfusia nordmannianae
leafminerTortricidaeEpinotia fraternana
leafminerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia fundella
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMelampsora abietis-caprearum
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMelampsorella caryophyllacearum
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMilesina dieteliana
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMilesina kriegeriana
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMilesina scolopendrii
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMilesina vogesiaca
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPucciniastrum epilobii
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPucciniastrum goeppertianum
leafvagrantsummer generationAdelgidaeAphrastasia pectinatae
stemgallAphididaeDreyfusia piceae
stemgallsummer generationdoubtfulAphididaeDreyfusia merkeri
stemgallsummer generationAphididaeDreyfusia prelli
stemvagrantrarelyAphididaeElatobium abietinum
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara confinis
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara pectinatae
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaeProciphilus fraxini


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


To filter the table above, add a text to the search field (top right of the table).
To sort a column click on an arrow after the column name (both ascending and descending).
Sort multiple columns with Shift + click on the arrows.


The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 1.viii.2022