Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Abies pinsapo

spanish fir

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotDrthioraceaeDelphinella abietis
stemborerCerambycidaeTrichoferus fasciculatus
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus milleri
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus pinsapinis
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus pinus
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus rafni
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus schimitscheki
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus specularis
flowerborerTorymidaeMegastigmus suspectus
stemborerBuprestidaeBuprestis flavoangulata
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia ceballosi
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia confusa
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia parallela
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia nigritula
stemborerCurculionidaeTrypodendron lineatum
stemborerrarelyCurculionidaeOrthotomicus erosus
stemborerCurculionidaeCryphalus numidicus
stemborerCurculionidaeCrypturgus mediterraneus
stemborerCurculionidaeCrypturgus numidicus
stemborerCurculionidaePityophthorus pinsapo
leafscaleDiaspididaeDynaspidiotus abieticola
stemscaleDiaspididaeDynaspidiotus britannicus
leafscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes newsteadi
leaf budborerolder larvaPyralidaeDioryctria aulloi
stemboreryounger larvaPyralidaeDioryctria aulloi
leafscaleDiaspididaeChionaspis austriaca
leafscalerarelyDiaspididaeLeucaspis pini
leafminerGelechiidaeChionodes electella
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara confinis
leafgallAphididaeMindarus abietinus
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMelampsora abietis-caprearum
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMelampsorella caryophyllacearum
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMilesina dieteliana
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMilesina kriegeriana
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPucciniastrum epilobii
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPucciniastrum goeppertianum
stemvagrantAphididaeCinara pectinatae
stemscaleCoccidaePhysokermes piceae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 1.viii.2022